Scott R. Smedley, Elizabeth Ehrhardt, Thomas Eisner, "Defensive Regurgitation by a Noctuid Moth Larva (Litoprosopus Futilis)", Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, vol. 100, Article ID 067950, 13 pages, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1155/1993/67950
Defensive Regurgitation by a Noctuid Moth Larva (Litoprosopus Futilis)
Larvae of the noctuid moth Litoprosopus futilis regurgitate when disturbed. The oral effluent proved deterrent to ants on nearcontact, and topically irritating in a scratch test with a cockroach. Larvae regurgitated when attacked by lycosid spiders and derived some protection from this behavior. Caterpillars were able to regurgitate even when emerging from the eggs; however, at this stage, they proved vulnerable to attack by chrysopid larvae and ants.