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Psyche
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 947439, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/947439
Review Article

Evolutionary Aspects of Acaricide-Resistance Development in Spider Mites

1Laboratory of Ecological Information, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
2Invasive Alien Species Research Team, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan

Received 2 September 2009; Accepted 29 December 2009

Academic Editor: Barry Pittendrigh

Copyright © 2009 Masahiro (Mh.) Osakabe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Although the development of acaricide resistance in spider mites is a long-standing issue in agricultural fields, recent problems with acaricide resistance may be characterized by the development of complex- and/or multiresistance to acaricides in distinct classes. Such complexity of resistance is not likely to be a single mechanism. Pesticide resistance involves the microevolution of arthropod pests, and population genetics underlies the evolution. In this review, we address the genetic mechanisms of acaricide resistance evolution. We discuss genetic diversity and linkage of resistance genes, relationships between mite habitat and dispersal, and the effect of dispersal on population genetic structure and the dynamics of resistance genes. Finally, we attempt to present a comprehensive view of acaricide resistance evolution and suggest risks under globalization as well as possible approaches to managing acaricide resistance evolution or emergence.