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Psyche
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 276376, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/276376
Review Article

Venom-Induced Immunosuppression: An Overview of Hemocyte-Mediated Responses

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Literature, Balikesir University, Çağış 10145, Turkey
2School of Nursing, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara 06018, Turkey
3Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kocaeli University, İzmit 41300, Turkey
4Department of Biology, Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA

Received 1 March 2011; Accepted 22 May 2011

Academic Editor: Cui Hu

Copyright © 2011 Aylin Er et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Parasitic wasps are important natural enemies of several insect pests. They use a variety of methods to modulate their insect host for their progeny to develop. For example, the female wasp needs to avoid or suppress the host immune responses by introducing venom with or without virus like particles and/or polydnaviruses. The aim of this paper is to provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the immunosuppression of host immunity with venom in parasitoids that are devoid of symbiotic viruses. Special emphasis is given through disabling host hemocytes by venom of the endoparasitoid Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) with comparisons of venoms from other parasitoid species.