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Volume 2012, Article ID 480483, 8 pages
Research Article

Effective Larval Foraging in Large, Low-Diet Environments by Anopheles gambiae

1Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
2Atlanta Research & Education Foundation (AREF), 1670 Clairmont Road (151F), Decatur, GA 30033, USA
3Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Scienze Biochimiche, Università Degli Studi di Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06122 Perugia, Italy

Received 11 August 2011; Accepted 17 October 2011

Academic Editor: G. B. Dunphy

Copyright © 2012 A. C. Sutcliffe and M. Q. Benedict. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Adult mosquito size is constrained by conditions experienced in the larval stage including the amount and quality of diet. The energy expended collecting diet depends partly on its concentration, the water depth, and the mosquito species. In order to better understand these interactions, individual Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles were cultured to the adult stage in three types of experiments in which one of the following conditions was fixed and the other two were varied: water volume, diet amount, and diet concentration. In addition to survival, days of development to pupation and wing length were determined. The same outcomes were measured in experiments for which special containers were constructed that allowed the detection of chemical and tactile interactions. Larvae were able to develop to adulthood in volumes as great as 30 mL/larva when diet was added at an average rate of only 7 μg/mL/day. The results demonstrate effective foraging in large low-diet volumes far above what had previously been estimated.