Psyche: A Journal of Entomology / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Effects of Soil Quality Enhancement on Pollinator-Plant Interactions

Table 2

Effect of soil treatment on pollinator responses to cucumber plants in field assays. Two-way choice in 2008 and 2009 included CF (potting soil plus Osmocote 14-14-14 at the label rate) and VC (potting soil plus 33% vermicompost) treatments. Four way choice field assays in 2010 included CF, VC, NF (potting soil without fertilizer), and VCEQ (potting soil plus slow release fertilizer with equivalent NPK as those provided by vermicompost) treatments. Values represent means ± SE from 11, 14 and 8 replicates for each season respectively. Means within rows followed by the same superscript letter are not significantly different (Tukey’s mean separation test, ).

YearResponse variablesCFVCNFVCEQ

2008Discovery time10.3 ± 2.68a7.7 ± 1.86aNANA
Number Visits8.3 ± 1.68a9.1 ± 0.86aNANA
Visit length (min)1.1 ± 0.32a1.9 ± 0.29bNANA
Bumblebee (%)66.4 ± 8.25a65.4 ± 8.67aNANA
Honey bees (%)11.7 ± 5.79a8.0 ± 4.5aNANA
Other native bees (%)21.8 ± 9.53a26.4 ± 9.26aNANA
2009Discovery time7.7 ± 1.84a3.92 ± 1.05bNANA
Number Visits13.4 ± 1.72a15.6 ± 1.88aNANA
Visit length (min)1.3 ± 0.14a2.1 ± 0.24bNANA
Bumblebee (%)94.3 ± 32.82a81.0 ± 27.17aNANA
Honey bees (%)0 ± 0.0a0 ± 0.0aNANA
Other native bees (%)5.6 ± 1.76a18.9 ± 3.38bNANA
2010Discovery (min)20.5 ± 3.96b13.9 ± 3.81c43.4 ± 1.62a19.6 ± 3.61b
Number Visits3.6 ± 1.26a7.0 ± 2.22a3.1 ± 1.20a3.0 ± 1.41a
Visit length (min)0.18 ± 0.07b0.67 ± 0.23c0.05 ± 0.08a0.20 ± 0.08b
Bumblebee (%)43.3 ± 16.75 a24.2 ± 11.66 a22.8 ± 9.72 a48.9 ± 18.52 a
Honey bees (%)19.2 ± 12.31 a26.1 ± 9.99 a26.9 ± 12.71a13.5 ± 12.39 a
Other native bees (%)12.5 ± 12.50 a49.6 ± 15.70 b12.8 ± 8.31a12.5 ± 12.50 a