Table 1: Statistical values from repeated one-way Analysis of Variance of the findings from experiments in which dead bees were used as models to aid in the learning process for foraging by living bees, in which living bees were able to watch other living bees (nestmates and nonnestmates) forage to aid in the learning process and in which living bees which had no opportunity to observe models or other living bees foraging learned to forage by within-colony communication.

Source of variationDegrees of
Sum of
Mean squares valueProbability

Using dead bees in the foraging position on the artificial flowers (Figure 3)
 Between bees9992368110263
 Between trials9723427280380819.68 0.001
Watching nestmates (Figure 4)
 Between bees85425678.1
 Between trials9308503427.8310.74 0.001
Watching nonnestmates (Figure 5)
 Between bees83948493.55
 Between trials9380144223.787.69 0.001
Communication within the domicile (Figure 6)
 Between bees8206192577.37
 Between trials928615631795.1121.37 0.001
The difference between four groups of tested bees
 Between learning type310501035003.61
 Between trial933123136803.442.300.046