Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psyche
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 134630, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/134630
Research Article

Busy Bees: Variation in Insect Flower-Visiting Rates across Multiple Plant Species

1Laboratory of Apiculture and Social Insects (LASI), School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK
2Biologie I, Universität Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany

Received 12 December 2014; Revised 18 May 2015; Accepted 26 May 2015

Academic Editor: Bertrand Schatz

Copyright © 2015 Margaret J. Couvillon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Arnold, “Pollination, predation and seed set in Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae),” American Midland Naturalist, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 360–369, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. C. M. Herrera, “Pollinator abundance, morphology, and flower visitation rate: analysis of the ‘quantity’ component in a plant-pollinator system,” Oecologia, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 241–248, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. M. Herrera, “Components of pollinator ‘quality’: comparative analysis of a diverse insect assemblage,” Oikos, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. F. Motten, “Reproduction of Erythronium umbilicatum (Liliaceae): pollination success and pollinator effectiveness,” Oecologia, vol. 59, no. 2-3, pp. 351–359, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. F. Motten, “Pollination ecology of the spring wildflower community of a temperate deciduous forest,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 21–42, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K. W. Richards, “Diversity, density, efficiency, and effectiveness of pollinators of cicer milkvetch, Astragalus cicer L.,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 2168–2176, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. A. Snow and D. W. Roubik, “Pollen deposition and removal by bees visiting two tree species in Panama,” Biotropica, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. N. Vicens and J. Bosch, “Pollinating efficacy of Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Apidae) on ‘Red Delicious’ apple,” Environmental Entomology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. W. M. U. M. Wanigasekara and W. A. I. P. Karunaratne, “Efficiency of buzzing bees in fruit set and seed set of Solanum violaceum in Sri Lanka,” Psyche, vol. 2012, Article ID 231638, 7 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. M. Waser, V. M. Price, A. M. Montalvo, and R. N. Gray, “Female mate choice in a perennial herbaceous wildflower, Delphinium nelsonii,” Evolutionary Trends in Plants, vol. 1, pp. 29–33, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  11. J. A. Winsor, L. E. Davis, and A. G. Stephenson, “The relationship between pollen load and fruit maturation and the effect of pollen load on offspring vigor in Cucurbita pepo,” The American Naturalist, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 643–656, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. L. Wolin, C. Galen, and L. Watkins, “The breeding system and aspects of pollination effectiveness in Oenothera speciosa (Onagraceae),” The Southwestern Naturalist, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. G. Ne'Eman, A. Jürgens, L. Newstrom-Lloyd, S. G. Potts, and A. Dafni, “A framework for comparing pollinator performance: effectiveness and efficiency,” Biological Reviews, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 435–451, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Proctor, P. Yeo, and A. Lack, The Natural History of Pollination, HarperCollins, London, UK, 1996.
  15. D. A. Kendall and M. E. Solomon, “Quantities of pollen on the bodies of insects visiting apple blossom,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 627–634, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. B. Free and I. H. Williams, “The transport of pollen on the body hairs of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus spp. L.),” The Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 609–615, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. N. M. Waser, “Flower constancy: definition, cause, and measurement,” The American Naturalist, vol. 127, no. 5, pp. 593–603, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. D. P. Vázquez, W. F. Morris, and P. Jordano, “Interaction frequency as a surrogate for the total effect of animal mutualists on plants,” Ecology Letters, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1088–1094, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. J. Balfour, M. Garbuzov, and F. L. W. Ratnieks, “Longer tongues and swifter handling: why do more bumble bees (Bombus spp.) than honey bees (Apis mellifera) forage on lavender (Lavandula spp.)?” Ecological Entomology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 323–329, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. Goulson, J. C. Stout, S. A. Hawson, and J. A. Allen, “Floral display size in comfrey, Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae): relationships with visitation by three bumblebee species and subsequent seed set,” Oecologia, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 502–508, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O. Jennersten and S. G. Nilsson, “Insect flower visitation frequency and seed production in relation to patch size of Viscaria vulgaris (Caryophyllaceae),” Oikos, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 283–292, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. P. Spira, A. A. Snow, D. F. Whigham, and J. Leak, “Flower visitation, pollen deposition, and pollen-tube competition in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae),” American Journal of Botany, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 428–433, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. S. Stubbs and F. A. Drummond, “Blueberry and cranberry (Vaccinium spp.) pollination: a comparison of managed and native bee foraging behavior,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 437, pp. 341–344, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. D. Thompson, “How do visitation patterns vary among pollinators in relation to floral display and floral design in a generalist pollination system?” Oecologia, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 386–394, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Grindeland, N. Sletvold, and R. A. Ims, “Effects of floral display size and plant density on pollinator visitation rate in a natural population of Digitalis purpurea,” Functional Ecology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 383–390, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. C. Engel and R. E. Irwin, “Linking pollinator visitation rate and pollen receipt,” American Journal of Botany, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1612–1618, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. M. Waser and M. V. Price, “Pollination efficiency and effectiveness of bumble bees and hummingbirds visiting Delphinium nelsonii,” Collectanea Botanica, vol. 19, pp. 9–20, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2007.
  29. D. Bates, M. Maechler, B. M. Bolker, and S. Walker, “lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4,” R package version, 2013, http://projecteuclid.org/download/pdf_1/euclid.ss/1177011926.
  30. Y. Benjamini and Y. Hochberg, “Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B. Methodological, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 289–300, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  31. J. P. Spradbery, Wasps: An Account of the Biology and Natural History of Solitary and Social Wasps, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, UK, 1973.
  32. F. W. L. Sladen, The Humble-Bee, Macmillan, London, UK, 1912.
  33. S. W. Batra, “Bees and pollination in our changing environment,” Apidologie, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 361–370, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Bosch and W. P. Kemp, “Developing and establishing bee, species as crop pollinators: the example of Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) and fruit trees,” Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. H. Cane, “Pollination potential of the bee Osmia aglaia for cultivated red raspberries and blackberries (Rubus: Rosaceae),” HortScience, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1705–1708, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Nybom, “Active self-pollination in blackberries (Rubus subgen. Rubus, Rosaceae),” Nordic Journal of Botany, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 521–525, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. J. H. Jacobs, S. J. Clark, I. Denholm, D. Goulson, C. Stoate, and J. L. Osborne, “Pollination biology of fruit-bearing hedgerow plants and the role of flower-visiting insects in fruit-set,” Annals of Botany, vol. 104, no. 7, pp. 1397–1404, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Dauber, J. C. Biesmeijer, D. Gabriel et al., “Effects of patch size and density on flower visitation and seed set of wild plants: a pan-European approach,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 188–196, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Cheng, H. Kirk, P. P. J. Mulder, K. Vrieling, and P. G. L. Klinkhamer, “Pyrrolizidine alkaloid variation in shoots and roots of segregating hybrids between Jacobaea vulgaris and Jacobaea aquatica,” New Phytologist, vol. 192, no. 4, pp. 1010–1023, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. B. Lamont and D. Wiens, “Are seed set and speciation rates always low among species that resprout after fire, and why?” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 277–292, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. J. De Jong, N. M. Waser, and P. G. L. Klinkhamer, “Geitonogamy: the neglected side of selfing,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 321–325, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Iwasa, T. J. De Jong, and P. G. Klinkhamer, “Why pollinators visit only a fraction of the open flowers on a plant: the plant's point of view,” Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 439–453, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Garbuzov and F. L. W. Ratnieks, “Quantifying variation among garden plants in attractiveness to bees and other flower-visiting insects,” Functional Ecology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 364–374, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. J. Couvillon, R. Schürch, and F. L. W. Ratnieks, “Waggle dance distances as integrative indicators of seasonal foraging challenges,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 4, Article ID e93495, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. L. Stanton, “Short-term learning and the searching accuracy of egg-laying butterflies,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. W. Clark and R. Dukas, “Balancing foraging and antipredator demands: an advantage of sociality,” The American Naturalist, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 542–548, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus