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Psyche
Volume 2015, Article ID 350675, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/350675
Research Article

Behavioral Response of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Lures and the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone

1Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, 301 Funchess Hall, Auburn, AL 38649, USA
2Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, P.O. Box LG 25, Legon, Accra, Ghana

Received 26 July 2015; Revised 7 October 2015; Accepted 15 October 2015

Academic Editor: Jan Klimaszewski

Copyright © 2015 Clement Akotsen-Mensah and Henry Y. Fadamiro. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of stone and pome fruits in North America. The behavioral response of adults of different physiological states (sex, age, diet, and mating status) to three commercially available synthetic lures, benzaldehyde (BZ) and plum essence (PE), the male-produced aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (GA), or their combinations, was studied in the laboratory. Four choice olfactometer bioassays demonstrated significant attraction of both sexes to PE lure. Both BZ and GA lures were not attractive to plum curculio when tested as commercially formulated. PE had higher release rate (1.51 mg/hr) than BZ (0.36 mg/hr) and GA (ca. 0.04 mg/hr), suggesting that the higher attractiveness of PE may be due to its relatively higher release rates. Tests with combined lures showed a neutral effect of combining GA with PE and an inhibitory effect of combining BZ with PE. The physiological conditions of the weevils had no significant effect on their response to the lures. Olfactometer tests with pure 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) confirmed that this compound was inhibitory to plum curculio. These results are discussed in relation to the contrasting field reports which implicated BZ + GA as an effective attractant for plum curculio.