Psyche: A Journal of Entomology The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The First Workers of the Ant Camponotus obscuripes Are a Different Allometric Morph with Relatively Long Antennae to Communicate with Other Larger Colony Members Thu, 22 Jun 2017 10:06:19 +0000 The first workers produced by an ant queen with a claustral founding mode are much smaller than the workers after the second generation and are thus called “nanitics.” These nanitics shoulder the initial fate of the colony and thus may be different morphometric morph from the other workers in mature colony to optimize the survival of their own colony. We report here that, in the ant Camponotus obscuripes Mayr, the allometric rules of the nanitics are different from those of other workers in mature colonies, suggesting that the nanitics constitute an independent caste as with soldiers or queens in other species. In addition, the antennae of the nanitics show the minimum absolute length-difference with the mother queen compared to the other traits measured. This result suggests that this small size difference enables C. obscuripes nanitics to communicate with the other members of the colony. Our results indicate that polymorphic societies affect the growth rules of workers. Saori Watanabe, Mamoru Terayama, Ryota Kawauchiya, Natsuki Ogusu, Yusuke Fujita, Syunta Mikami, Yuuka Murakami, and Eisuke Hasegawa Copyright © 2017 Saori Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Repellent Effect and Insecticidal Activities of Bridelia ferruginea, Blighia sapida, and Khaya senegalensis Leaves Powders and Extracts against Dinoderus porcellus in Infested Dried Yam Chips Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Dinoderus porcellus is considered as the most important pest of stored yam chips and compounds extracted from plants can be used for its control. The present study aimed to test the insecticidal and repellent activities of powders and extracts of leaves of Bridelia ferruginea, Blighia sapida, and Khaya senegalensis against D. porcellus. The efficacy of plant powders was compared with the synthetic pesticide Antouka (Permethrin 3 g/kg + pirimiphos 16 g/kg). The results of the experiment revealed that all plant powders were effective as repellents. Antouka was more effective as insecticidal than the plant powders and minimal weight loss was observed with B. sapida at 2%. Among treatments, propanol extract of K. senegalensis at 5% was found to elicit the highest repellent effect on D. porcellus. The LC50 results revealed that the acetone extract of K. senegalensis is the most toxic (0.29 μL/insect) to the pest, while the propanol extract of B. ferruginea at 5% exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against D. porcellus, with 88.89% of pest mortality at 160 μL/L air. The findings from the current work proved that plant powders and extracts of the three plants are sources of botanical insecticides which may be used in the integrated management of D. porcellus. Laura Yêyinou Loko, Obédatou Alagbe, Elie A. Dannon, Benjamin Datinon, Azize Orobiyi, Agnés Thomas-Odjo, Alexandre Dansi, and Manuele Tamò Copyright © 2017 Laura Yêyinou Loko et al. All rights reserved. Buzzing Wild Bee Visits Enhance Seed Set in Eggplant, Solanum melongena Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Sixty percent of the angiosperms with poricidal anthers are buzz-pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Plant taxa with Solanum-type flowers have larger anthers and shorter filaments. Solanum melongena (Solanaceae) is more commonly and efficiently pollinated by buzz pollinators. The present study documented bees and their diurnal pattern of visitation to flowers, relationship between their handling time and flower age, and the effect of bee visits on fruit and seed set in S. melongena in two sites in Kandy District. Efficiency of buzz pollination over pollination in the absence of bees was determined using open buds and buds covered with pollinator exclusion bags. On average, 150 days were taken to complete the life cycle of Solanum melongena. Three buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site I and five buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site II were recorded. Handling time of Pachynomia sp. and Hoplonomia westwoodi indicates that bees spend more time at new flowers than at old flowers. Handling time is higher in the smaller bee, Pachynomia sp., than in the larger bee, H. westwoodi. Statistical data on pollinator exclusion experiment revealed that the fruit set and seed set of S. melongena are enhanced by buzz-pollinating bees. U. J. M. Shanika R. Jayasinghe, T. H. Saumya E. Silva, and W. A. Inoka P. Karunaratne Copyright © 2017 U. J. M. Shanika R. Jayasinghe et al. All rights reserved. Sigma Virus (DMelSV) Incidence in Lines of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Survival following Infection with Bacillus cereus Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV) in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance. Meghan L. Bentz, Eve A. Humphrey, Lawrence G. Harshman, and Marta L. Wayne Copyright © 2017 Meghan L. Bentz et al. All rights reserved. Diversity of Wild Bees along Elevational Gradient in an Agricultural Area in Central Java, Indonesia Tue, 31 Jan 2017 07:57:39 +0000 Increases in mean temperature affect the diversity and abundance of wild bees in agricultural ecosystems. Pollinator community composition is expected to change along an elevational gradient due to differences in the daily ambient temperature. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of wild bees in an agricultural area along an elevational gradient in Central Java, Indonesia. Wild bees were collected using a sweep net in 40 green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivation sampling locations at seven different elevations (8, 108, 224, 424, 644, 893, and 1017 m above sea level). Species diversity was determined using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index. We identified 932 individuals from 8 species of wild bee belonging to 3 families. The family Apidae was predominant, with 6 species, while only 1 species was found from each of Megachilidae and Halictidae. Across the study sites, diversity increased with increasing elevation ( = 1.4, = 0.25, and = 0.78 at low elevation to = 2.04, = 0.13, and = 0.96 at high elevation), and higher numbers of species were found at middle and high elevations. Species richness and abundance increased linearly with increasing elevation, and species diversity was highest at middle elevations. Imam Widhiono, Eming Sudiana, and Darsono Darsono Copyright © 2017 Imam Widhiono et al. All rights reserved. Species Composition and Visiting Frequencies of Flower Visitors of Chromolaena odorata in a Dry Zone Forest Patch of Sri Lanka Wed, 28 Dec 2016 13:46:58 +0000 Plant-animal interaction has been a major theme in ecology as it has helped ecologists to rule out different patterns they observed in the surrounding environments. Chromolaena odorata is another plant species that is studied extensively as it has become a major troublesome weed in many parts of the tropics. But, handful of studies are available on pollination of this invasive plant species in dry forests and its function as a pollinator sink in these environments. The current study was carried out in a dry zone secondary forest patch in North-Central Sri Lanka to assess the diversity, abundance, and pollination strength of flower visitors associated with the C. odorata. The results suggest that the diversity of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera is higher than the other insect orders that visited C. odorata, but all species exerted equal pollination strength on the plant. The attraction of large numbers of insects is concluded to as one of the factors that contribute to the reproductive success of C. odorata in dry zone forests. D. G. R. M. M. Kaushalya Rathnayake and W. M. G. Asanga S. T. B. Wijetunga Copyright © 2016 D. G. R. M. M. Kaushalya Rathnayake and W. M. G. Asanga S. T. B. Wijetunga. All rights reserved. Reproductive Interference and Niche Partitioning in Aphidophagous Insects Tue, 20 Dec 2016 06:01:14 +0000 The range and quality of prey species differ greatly among closely related species of predators. However, the factors responsible for this diversified niche utilization are unclear. This is because the predation and resource competition do not always prevent species coexistence. In this paper, we present evidence in support of reproductive interference as a driver of niche partitioning, focusing on aphidophagous insect. Firstly, we present closely related generalist and specialist species pairs in aphidophagous lacewings to compare the reproductive interference hypothesis with two other hypotheses that have been proposed to explain niche partitioning in lacewings and sympatric speciation through host race formation and sexual selection. Secondly, we present a case study that shows how reproductive interference can drive niche partitioning in sibling ladybird species. Thirdly, we show that many ladybird genera include species inhabiting the same region but having different food and habitat preferences, raising the possibility that reproductive interference might occur in these groups. Finally, we show that intraguild predation cannot always explain the niche partitioning in aphidophagous insects including hoverflies and parasitoids. On the basis of the evidence presented, we urge that future studies investigating predator communities should take account of the role of reproductive interference. Suzuki Noriyuki and Naoya Osawa Copyright © 2016 Suzuki Noriyuki and Naoya Osawa. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Intraspecific and Intracolonial Variation in the Profile of Venom Alkaloids and Cuticular Hydrocarbons of the Fire Ant Solenopsis saevissima Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)” Mon, 21 Nov 2016 06:49:35 +0000 Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox, Adriana Pianaro, Daniel Russ Solis, Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie, Bruno Cunha Vairo, Ednildo de Alcântara Machado, and Odair Correa Bueno Copyright © 2016 Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox et al. All rights reserved. Abrupt Geographical Transition between Aposematic Color Forms in the Spittlebug Prosapia ignipectus (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Wed, 26 Oct 2016 07:30:05 +0000 Over most of its range populations of the spittlebug Prosapia ignipectus (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) are monomorphic for black dorsal coloration. At the far northeastern margin of the species range in Maine, a cluster of populations is monomorphic for the presence of traverse orange dorsal lines against a black background. The narrow gap separating monomorphic black and monomorphic lined populations is less than 10 km wide, shows no evidence of a hybrid zone, and is without consequential physical barriers or ecological breaks. This sharp and unexpected division of color forms seems to have persisted for at least 90 years. It appears to be the sharpest divide ever recorded between geographically adjacent populations monomorphic for alternative aposematic color forms. About 45 kilometers to the southwest of this dividing line, three closely situated populations, surrounded by monomorphic black populations, are polymorphic for the two color forms. These observations are at variance with several expectations for aposematic species: (1) that local populations will be monomorphic for warning coloration, (2) that adjacent populations monomorphic for different local color forms will be linked by populations with mixed or hybrid forms, and (3) that geographic boundaries between contrasting aposematic color forms should be temporally unstable. Vinton Thompson and Gervasio S. Carvalho Copyright © 2016 Vinton Thompson and Gervasio S. Carvalho. All rights reserved. Defensive Nymphs of the Woolly Aphid Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hemiptera) on the Oak Quercus glauca Wed, 05 Oct 2016 07:54:05 +0000 Aphid nymphs with enlarged fore- and mid-legs were found from woolly colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) on leaves of the evergreen Quercus glauca in Japan. It was shown that they grasped an introduced moth larva with their legs and some inserted their stylets deep into the body. These defenders were first-instar nymphs of the alate generation and were produced by aleyrodiform apterae from early September onward. There was a large variation in the size of their forelegs. First-instar nymphs (to be alates) produced early in the season had fore-femorotrochanters shorter than those produced later. The molting rate (the percentage of pharate individuals) of the latter was very low (less than 5% to zero), suggesting their semisterility. Although first-instar nymphs with various lengths of forelegs joined to attack moth larvae, these facts indicate that an incipient caste differentiation occurs within the first-instar nymphs of the alate generation. Utako Kurosu, Shigeyuki Aoki, Keigo Uematsu, Mayako Kutsukake, and Takema Fukatsu Copyright © 2016 Utako Kurosu et al. All rights reserved. Perch Selection by Three Cooccurring Species of Celithemis (Odonata: Libellulidae): Testing for a Competitive Hierarchy among Similar Species Thu, 22 Sep 2016 08:03:25 +0000 In many communities of perching dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae), a size-dependent competitive hierarchy creates a positive relationship between male body size and perch height. We tested for this pattern among three similar-sized species: Celithemis elisa, C. fasciata, and C. ornata. Males were caught and photographed from May to July 2015 at Ashmore Heritage Preserve, Greenville County, SC, USA, and perch heights and perch distance to open water were measured. Five indices of body size were measured with ImageJ software: abdomen length, forewing length, hindwing length, area of forewing, and area of hindwing. Celithemis fasciata was significantly larger than the other two species for all five anatomical characters and used perches that were significantly taller and closer to open water than the other species, though these differences changed over the summer. Aggressive interactions between and within species were tallied and compared to expected distributions based on mean relative abundances derived from hourly abundance counts. Patterns of interspecific aggression were also consistent with a size-dependent hierarchy: the large C. fasciata was attacked less frequently, and the small C. ornata more frequently, than predicted by their relative abundances. We conclude that even small differences in body size may contribute to niche partitioning in perch selection. Wade B. Worthen and Parker H. Morrow Copyright © 2016 Wade B. Worthen and Parker H. Morrow. All rights reserved. Terpenes: Natural Products for Controlling Insects of Importance to Human Health—A Structure-Activity Relationship Study Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:32:32 +0000 Many insects affect food production and human health, and in an attempt to control these insects the use of synthetic insecticides has become widespread. However, this has resulted in the development of resistance in these organisms, human diseases, contamination of food, and pollution of the environment. Plants natural products and essential oil components such as terpenes and phenylpropenes have been shown to have a significant potential for insect control. However, the molecular properties related to their insecticidal activity are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the toxicity of terpene compounds against three insects of importance to human health: lice, cockroaches, and Triatominae bugs and to evaluate which molecular descriptors are important in the bioactivity of terpenes. For the insects studied, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed in order to predict the insecticidal activity of terpene compounds. The obtained QSAR models indicated that the activity of these compounds depends on their ability to reach the targets and to interact with them. The QSAR analysis can be used to predict the bioactivities of other structurally related molecules. Our findings may provide an important contribution in the search for new compounds with insecticidal activity. José S. Dambolena, María P. Zunino, Jimena M. Herrera, Romina P. Pizzolitto, Vanessa A. Areco, and Julio A. Zygadlo Copyright © 2016 José S. Dambolena et al. All rights reserved. Ovarian Development and Vitellogenin Gene Expression under Heat Stress in Silkworm, Bombyx mori Mon, 22 Aug 2016 13:23:57 +0000 The present study observed the effect of heat stress on ovarian development, fecundity, and vitellogenin gene expression in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The result showed that the heat shock treatment to spinning larvae and pupae at 39°C (1 h and 2 h) did not cause any adverse effect on the reproductive performance of B. mori. However, the heat shock treatment at 42°C or above caused a decrease in the fecundity. The heat shock treatment to day 2 pupae for 2 h at 45°C caused a drastic effect on the development of ovary as measured by gonadosomatic index. The study thus showed that a brief exposure of Bombyx larvae and pupae to a temperature of 42°C or higher, much prevalent in tropical countries like India, greatly affects the ovarian development and reproductive performance of this commercially important insect. The study further showed a developmental- and tissue-specific expression of vitellogenin mRNA in fat body and ovary upon heat shock. When heat shock treatment was done at 39°C and 42°C to spinning larvae, ovary showed an upregulation in the expression of vitellogenin mRNA, whereas fat body failed to do so. However, at 45°C, both fat body and ovary showed a downregulation. The heat shock treatment to day 2 pupae showed an upregulation in the vitellogenin mRNA expression in both fat body and ovary, even at 45°C. The upregulation in the expression of vitellogenin upon heat shock indicates its role in thermal protection of Bombyx larvae and pupae. Satinath Paul and Bela Keshan Copyright © 2016 Satinath Paul and Bela Keshan. All rights reserved. Capture of Nontarget Flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, and Anthomyiidae) on Traps Baited with Volatile Chemicals in Field-Crop Habitats Sun, 14 Aug 2016 11:29:58 +0000 Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew) and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp.), and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp.) in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch of H. bispina in two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch of C. borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught more H. bispina than ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught more C. borealis than those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch of Olcella flies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of male Delia flies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of male Delia flies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of female Delia flies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and female Delia flies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals. Louis S. Hesler Copyright © 2016 Louis S. Hesler. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Analysis of the North American Beetle Genus Trichiotinus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Trichiinae) Sun, 14 Aug 2016 09:40:56 +0000 A hypothesized evolutionary history of the North American endemic trichiine scarab genus Trichiotinus is presented including all eight species and three outgroup taxa. Data from nineteen morphological traits and CO1 and 28S gene sequences were used to construct phylogenies using both parsimony and Bayesian algorithms. All results show that Trichiotinus is monophyletic. The best supported topology shows that the basal species T. lunulatus is sister to the remaining taxa that form two clades, with four and three species each. The distribution of one lineage is relatively northern while the other is generally more southern. The ancestral Trichiotinus lineage arose from 23.8–14.9 mya, and east-west geographic partitioning of ancestral populations likely resulted in cladogenesis and new species creation, beginning as early as 10.6–6.2 mya and as recently as 1.2–0.7 mya. Morphological character evolution is also briefly discussed. The limited distribution of T. rufobrunneus in Florida and T. viridans in the Midwest mainly due to urban development and widespread agriculture makes these two species of conservation concern. T. Keith Philips, Mark Callahan, Jesús Orozco, and Naomi Rowland Copyright © 2016 T. Keith Philips et al. All rights reserved. Functional Responses of Nephus arcuatus Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the Most Important Predator of Spherical Mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead) Sun, 03 Apr 2016 12:47:31 +0000 Nephus arcuatus Kapur is an important predator of Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead), in citrus orchards of southwestern Iran. This study examined the feeding efficiency of all stages of N. arcuatus at different densities of N. viridis eggs by estimating their functional responses. First and 2nd instar larvae as well as adult males exhibited a type II functional response. Attack rate and handling time were estimated to be 0.2749 h−1 and 5.4252 h, respectively, for 1st instars, 0.5142 h−1 and 1.1995 h for 2nd instars, and 0.4726 h−1 and 0.7765 h for adult males. In contrast, 3rd and 4th instar larvae and adult females of N. arcuatus exhibited a type III functional response. Constant and handling time were estimated to be 0.0142 and 0.4064 h for 3rd instars, respectively, 0.00660 and 0.1492 h for 4th instars, and 0.00859 and 0.2850 h for adult females. The functional response of these six developmental stages differed in handling time. Based on maximum predation rate, 4th instar larvae were the most predatory (160.9 eggs/d) followed by adult females (84.2 eggs/d). These findings suggest that N. arcuatus is a promising biocontrol agent of N. viridis eggs especially for 4th instar larvae and adult females. Sara Zarghami, Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh, Farhan Kocheili, Hossein Allahyari, and Arash Rasekh Copyright © 2016 Sara Zarghami et al. All rights reserved. New Species of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann and Bause (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanytarsini) from Darjeeling–Sikkim, Himalaya, India, with Revised Keys to the Adult Males and Pupae of the Species of the Oriental Region Thu, 10 Mar 2016 08:31:06 +0000 Three new species of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann and Bause are described and illustrated from India. R. nudicornus n. sp. belonging to the aquilus species group is described as adult male and pupa, R. spinicornus n. sp. in the muscicola group is described as adult male, pupa, and larva, and R. caputimberus in the trivittatus group is described as adult male with damaged pupa. A possible placement and inclusion of these three new species from India and other seven species recorded from the Oriental China in the key to males of genus Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. are proposed. A probable placement and inclusion of the 2 new species from India in the key to pupae of Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. are also stated. Diagnoses of the muscicola group and trivittatus group are emended. Niladri Hazra, Shubhranil Brahma, and Kaushik Sanyal Copyright © 2016 Niladri Hazra et al. All rights reserved. Evidence for Use of Alliaria petiolata in North America by the European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae Sun, 21 Feb 2016 11:51:54 +0000 Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development. Sam L. Davis and Don Cipollini Copyright © 2016 Sam L. Davis and Don Cipollini. All rights reserved. Life History of an Endangered Marine Insect Halovelia septentrionalis Esaki (Hemiptera: Veliidae) Thu, 24 Dec 2015 12:59:42 +0000 Halovelia septentrionalis Esaki is one of the endangered marine water striders found along the Japanese coast. It is of primary importance to investigate its life history in the field so as to develop conservation measures as well as to understand how this species has adapted to marine environments. We studied its life history in Misaki on the southern part of the Miura Peninsular near Tokyo, ca. 35°N, probably the northernmost locality not only for H. septentrionalis but also for any Halovelia species, most of which are found in warm tropical or subtropical waters. The southern part of the Miura Peninsular has jagged coastlines with deep inner bays. Adults and nymphs were found skating along the rocky shore of inner bays with overhanging vegetation nearby. This species appeared to have at least 2 generations a year and to overwinter in the adult stage. We discussed its overwintering strategy in comparison to those of two other Japanese marine water striders. Terumi Ikawa and Aika Nakazawa Copyright © 2015 Terumi Ikawa and Aika Nakazawa. All rights reserved. Neochrysocharis okazakii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) as a Major Parasitoid Wasp of Stone Leek Leaf Miner Liriomyza chinensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Central Vietnam Mon, 21 Dec 2015 11:12:44 +0000 Liriomyza chinensis is a major pest of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum in Asia but little is known about the abundance of its natural enemies. A field survey was made to explore the major parasitoids of L. chinensis leaf miner in central Vietnam. An eulophid parasitoid, Neochrysocharis okazakii, comprised more than 95% of parasitoids reared from leaf miner larvae collected in the onion field and 98.3% of leaf miner parasitoids found during searches of onion plants. The mean number of female N. okazakii on plants was greater in onion fields with a higher density of L. chinensis, and, during searches, a greater proportion of N. okazakii was found on onion with more L. chinensis mines, suggesting density-dependent parasitoid aggregation. Melanized dead larvae of L. chinensis were more frequently found in onion fields with more parasitoids, demonstrating that melanized leaf miners are a good indicator of parasitoid activity. Mean instant rate of host encounter by N. okazakii in the field was estimated at 0.077, and the likelihood of a parasitoid finding a host increased with host density. Taken together, these results show that N. okazakii is the major parasitoid of L. chinensis. Usefulness of this parasitoid in stone leek leaf miner management is discussed. Takatoshi Ueno and Dang Hoa Tran Copyright © 2015 Takatoshi Ueno and Dang Hoa Tran. All rights reserved. Pimachrysa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Nothochrysinae): Larval Description and Support for Generic Relationships Mon, 21 Dec 2015 07:32:23 +0000 We describe the previously unknown larval characteristics of Pimachrysa (second and third instars), and we provide new comparative data on the Nothochrysa californica Banks larvae that were described earlier. The Pimachrysa larvae (identified as Pimachrysa fusca Adams) express the numerous features that characterize the chrysopid subfamily Nothochrysinae. They resemble Hypochrysa larvae in many respects, but several differences support retaining the two genera as separate. It now appears that the reputedly more archaic, small bodied, nothochrysine genera (e.g., Dictyochrysa, Hypochrysa, and Pimachrysa) have naked larvae that differ distinctly from the larvae of Nothochrysa species, all of which are debris-carriers. In addition, the pattern of variability in Nothochrysa larval features supports the proposal that this genus has a closer relationship with the other chrysopid subfamilies than do the small-bodied nothochrysine genera. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that larval nakedness (as opposed to debris-carrying) was the ancestral life style for the extant chrysopid clade. Catherine A. Tauber and David K. Faulkner Copyright © 2015 Catherine A. Tauber and David K. Faulkner. All rights reserved. Temporal and Spatial Foraging Behavior of the Larvae of the Fall Webworm Hyphantria cunea Mon, 07 Dec 2015 13:04:04 +0000 During their first three larval stadia, caterpillars of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) are patch-restricted foragers, confining their activity to a web-nest they construct in the branches of the host tree. Activity recordings of eight field colonies made over 46 colony-days showed that the later instars become central place foragers, leaving their nests at dusk to feed at distant sites and then returning to their nests in the morning. Colonies maintained in the laboratory showed that same pattern of foraging. In Y-choice laboratory experiments, caterpillars were slow to abandon old, exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. An average of approximately 40% of the caterpillars in five colonies still selected pathways leading to exhausted sites at the onset of foraging bouts over those leading to new sites after feeding exclusively at the new sites on each of the previous four days. On returning to their nests in the morning, approximately 23% of the caterpillars erred by selecting pathways that led them away from the nest rather than toward it and showed no improvement over the course of the study. The results of these Y-choice studies indicate that, compared to other previously studied species of social caterpillars, the webworm employs a relatively simple system of collective foraging. Terrence D. Fitzgerald Copyright © 2015 Terrence D. Fitzgerald. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of the Host Effect on Phenotypical Variation of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:26:43 +0000 The Triatominae subfamily includes hematophagous insects, well known for their role as vectors for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. Belminus ferroae is a triatomine that showed an increased demographic fitness when cockroaches were used as hosts. Here we compare the centroid size (CS) and wing shape between B. ferroae parents and three successive generations (O1, O2, and O3) of their offspring fed on cockroaches or mice under laboratory conditions. Morphometric analysis of the wings bugs fed on cockroaches showed a significant reduction in CS in both sexes among all generations. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was observed in the insects fed on cockroaches (O2 and O3), as well as those bugs fed on mice (O2). Differences in the shape of wings were observed between parental and offspring wings when fed on mice, but not in males (O1, O2, and O3) or females (O1 and O2) fed on cockroaches. There was a greater wing shape similarity between the cockroach-fed offspring and their parents according to the Mahalanobis distances. Our results support the idea of higher adaptation of this Triatominae with arthropod hosts. Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez, Elsa Evelia Nieves Blanco, Reinaldo Gutiérrez Marin, Diego Alexander Jaimes Mendez, Nelcy Ortiz Rodríguez, Fernando Otálora-Luna, and Elis José Aldana Copyright © 2015 Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez et al. All rights reserved. Dipterofauna Associated with Sus scrofa Linné, 1758, Carcasses in Urban and Coastal Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:01:29 +0000 Cadaverous entomofauna successions vary according to the region, environment, and climate, and such differences may occur within the same country due to seasonal variations. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the dipterofauna that visit or colonize carcasses in the urban and coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, during summer and winter seasons. Four swine (Sus scrofa Linné, 1758) carcasses of approximately 12 kg were used. The animals were previously euthanized and then placed in metal cages covered with a flight intercept trap (Shannon, modified). In total, 10,495 flies from 39 families were collected, with 15 species belonging to the Calliphoridae family, 14 species belonging to the Fanniidae family, 43 species belonging to the Muscidae family, and 22 species belonging to the Sarcophagidae family. Flies from these four families visited all carcasses; however, they did not show the highest visitation frequencies in all of the trials. Species variations occurred between the experiments that were performed at different locations and in different seasons. Furthermore, difference in the number of insects attracted to each stage of decomposition was observed. In addition to the four families highlighted above, the families Phoridae, Sepsidae, Otitidae, and Piophilidae were observed in all carcasses. Maria Luiza Cavallari, Fabio Navarro Baltazar, Silvio Shigueo Nihei, Daniel Romero Muñoz, and José Eduardo Tolezano Copyright © 2015 Maria Luiza Cavallari et al. All rights reserved. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea) Thu, 19 Nov 2015 08:27:08 +0000 Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson), from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera. Roman Rakitov Copyright © 2015 Roman Rakitov. All rights reserved. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) and Its Ecological Implications Wed, 18 Nov 2015 11:18:31 +0000 Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera) in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi). However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26%) belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus. Favio Gerardo Vossler Copyright © 2015 Favio Gerardo Vossler. All rights reserved. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Mae Klong Watershed, Western Thailand Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:48:13 +0000 The distribution and diversity of aquatic insects and water quality variables were studied among three streams of the Mae Klong Watershed. In each stream, two sites were sampled. Aquatic insects and water quality variables were randomly sampled seven times in February, May, September, and December 2010 and in January, April, and May 2011. Overall, 11,153 individuals belonging to 64 families and nine orders were examined. Among the aquatic insects collected from the three streams, the order Trichoptera was most diverse in number of individuals, followed by Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Megaloptera, and Lepidoptera. The highest Shannon index of diversity of 2.934 and 3.2 was recorded in Huai Kayeng stream and the lowest was in Huai Pakkok stream (2.68 and 2.62). The high diversity of insect fauna in streams is an indication of larger microhabitat diversity and better water quality conditions prevailing in the streams. The evenness value was recorded as high in most sites. The high species diversity and evenness in almost all sites indicated good water quality. Witwisitpong Maneechan and Taeng On Prommi Copyright © 2015 Witwisitpong Maneechan and Taeng On Prommi. All rights reserved. Morphology of the Preimaginal Stages of Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a Candidate Biocontrol Agent for Giant Arundo Cane Mon, 02 Nov 2015 12:54:42 +0000 The larval stages of Lasioptera donacis Coutin consist of three instars which develop within the mesophyll of the leaf sheaths of Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae). The larvae feed aggregatively on mycelia of an ambrosia fungus. The third instars are similar to other members of the genus except for a three-pronged spatula (typically two-pronged) and five lateral papillae (typically four) and with a nonbristled first instar. A related species, L. arundinis (Schiner) which breeds on fungus in Phragmites (Poaceae), also has a three-pronged spatula and five lateral papillae but has a bristled first instar. The third instar of L. donacis has a feeding and a nonfeeding prepupal stage. Papillae associated with the spatula are sensory organs, sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea, and sensilla ampullacea, perhaps related to extraoral digestion of the fungal mycelia. Pupation occurs in the host plant within a silken cocoon. Egression of the adult is through an escape hatch excavated by the third instar. Donald B. Thomas and John A. Goolsby Copyright © 2015 Donald B. Thomas and John A. Goolsby. All rights reserved. Behavioral Response of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Lures and the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone Thu, 29 Oct 2015 14:05:34 +0000 Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of stone and pome fruits in North America. The behavioral response of adults of different physiological states (sex, age, diet, and mating status) to three commercially available synthetic lures, benzaldehyde (BZ) and plum essence (PE), the male-produced aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (GA), or their combinations, was studied in the laboratory. Four choice olfactometer bioassays demonstrated significant attraction of both sexes to PE lure. Both BZ and GA lures were not attractive to plum curculio when tested as commercially formulated. PE had higher release rate (1.51 mg/hr) than BZ (0.36 mg/hr) and GA (ca. 0.04 mg/hr), suggesting that the higher attractiveness of PE may be due to its relatively higher release rates. Tests with combined lures showed a neutral effect of combining GA with PE and an inhibitory effect of combining BZ with PE. The physiological conditions of the weevils had no significant effect on their response to the lures. Olfactometer tests with pure 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) confirmed that this compound was inhibitory to plum curculio. These results are discussed in relation to the contrasting field reports which implicated BZ + GA as an effective attractant for plum curculio. Clement Akotsen-Mensah and Henry Y. Fadamiro Copyright © 2015 Clement Akotsen-Mensah and Henry Y. Fadamiro. All rights reserved. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Life Table Indices of Plutella xylostella in Multigenerations Wed, 28 Oct 2015 07:07:23 +0000 The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of Brassicaceae family in Iran. This study investigated the sublethal effects of pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analogue, on DBM, for two subsequent generations. The leaf dip bioassay method was adopted in conducting this experiment. Sublethal concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in fecundity, oviposition period, and pupal weight of parents and offspring generations. Also, the development time of DBM was prolonged after exposure to pyriproxyfen. The biological parameters such as net reproductive rate () and intrinsic () and finite () rate of increase were lower than control in treatment groups, significantly. From our investigations, pyriproxyfen is a good choice for control of the diamondback moth population through continuous generations. Mohammad Mahmoudvand, Saeid Moharramipour, and Mehrdad Iranshahi Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Mahmoudvand et al. All rights reserved.