Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Psychiatry Journal
Volume 2014, Article ID 692423, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/692423
Review Article

The Continuing Care Model of Substance Use Treatment: What Works, and When Is “Enough,” “Enough?”

1Department of Psychology, Louisiana State University, 236 Audubon Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
2CRC Health Group Inc., 6185 Paseo Del Norte, Suite 150, Carlsbad, CA 92011, USA

Received 9 October 2013; Accepted 18 January 2014; Published 27 March 2014

Academic Editor: Claude Robert Cloninger

Copyright © 2014 Steven L. Proctor and Philip L. Herschman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: summary of national findings,” NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication SMA 12-4713, Office of Applied Studies, Rockville, Md, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. D. A. Andrews, J. Bonta, and J. Stephen Wormith, “The recent past and near future of risk and/or need assessment,” Crime and Delinquency, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 7–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. DeBeck, T. Kerr, K. Li et al., “Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 181, no. 9, pp. 585–589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Fals-Stewart, “Detection of neuropsychological impairment among substance-abusing patients: accuracy of the neurobehavioral cognitive status examination,” Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 269–276, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Gossop, D. Stewart, S. Treacy, and J. Marsden, “A prospective study of mortality among drug misusers during a 4-year period after seeking treatment,” Addiction, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. E. Helzer and T. R. Pryzbeck, “The co-occurrence of alcoholism with other psychiatric disorders in the general population and its impact on treatment,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 219–224, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J.-P. F. P. Palmentier, R. Warren, and L. Y. Gorczynski, “Alcohol and drugs in suspected impaired drivers in Ontario from 2001 to 2005,” Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 444–448, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, “Highlights of the 2010 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) findings on drug-related emergency department visits,” Tech. Rep., Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Rockville, Md, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  10. G. Stoduto, E. Vingilis, B. M. Kapur, W.-J. Sheu, B. A. McLellan, and C. B. Liban, “Alcohol and drug use among motor vehicle collision victims admitted to a regional trauma unit: demographic, injury, and crash characteristics,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 411–420, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. J. Cherpitel and Y. Ye, “Drug use and problem drinking associated with primary care and emergency room utilization in the US general population: data from the 2005 national alcohol survey,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 226–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Li, P. M. Keyl, R. Rothman, A. Chanmugam, and G. D. Kelen, “Epidemiology of alcohol-related emergency department visits,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 788–795, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. J. McDonald III, N. Wang, and C. A. Camargo Jr., “. US emergency department visits for alcohol-related diseases and injuries between 1992 and 2000,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 531–537, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. J. Cherpitel and Y. Ye, “Trends in alcohol- and drug-related ED and primary care visits: data from three U.S. national surveys (1995–2005),” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 576–583, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. D. Stein, P. S. O'Sullivan, P. Ellis, H. Perrin, and A. Wartenberg, “Utilization of medical services by drug abusers in detoxification,” Journal of Substance Abuse, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. S. Miller and N. G. Hoffmann, “Addictions treatment outcomes,” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 41–55, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. G. Druss and R. A. Rosenheck, “Patterns of health care costs associated with depression and substance abuse in a national sample,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 214–218, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. R. Frone, “Prevalence and distribution of alcohol use and impairment in the workplace: a U.S. national survey,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 147–156, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. C. Blum, P. M. Roman, and J. K. Martin, “Alcohol consumption and work performance,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 61–70, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Jones, S. Casswell, and J.-F. Zhang, “The economic costs of alcohol-related absenteeism and reduced productivity among the working population of New Zealand,” Addiction, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1455–1461, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. W. Mangione, J. Howland, B. Amick et al., “Employee drinking practices and work performance,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 261–270, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. R. Frone, “Prevalence and distribution of illicit drug use in the workforce and in the workplace: findings and implications from a U.S. national survey,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 856–869, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Harwood, “Updating estimates of the economic costs of alcohol abuse in the United States: estimates, update methods, and data,” NIH Publication 98-4327, Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Md, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  24. Office of National Drug Control Policy, “The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States, 1992–2002,” Publication 207303, Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  25. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  26. R. L. Hubbard, M. E. Marsden, J. V. Rachal, H. J. Harwood, E. R. Cavanaugh, and H. M. Ginzburg, Drug Abuse Treatment: A Natural Study of Effectiveness, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 1989.
  27. S. B. Sells and D. D. Simpson, “The case for drug abuse treatment effectiveness, based on the DARP research program,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 117–131, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. D. Simpson, “Treatment for drug abuse. Follow-up outcomes and length of time spent,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 875–880, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Z. Zhang, P. D. Friedmann, and D. R. Gerstein, “Does retention matter? Treatment duration and improvement in drug use,” Addiction, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 673–684, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. M. Flynn, S. G. Craddock, R. L. Hubbard, J. Anderson, and R. M. Etheridge, “Methodological overview and research design for the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS),” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 230–243, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. L. Hubbard, S. G. Craddock, P. M. Flynn, J. Anderson, and R. M. Etheridge, “Overview of 1-year follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS),” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 261–278, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. D. Simpson, G. W. Joe, and B. S. Brown, “Treatment retention and follow-up outcomes in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS),” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 294–307, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. D. Simpson, G. W. Joe, K. M. Broome, M. L. Hiller, K. Knight, and G. A. Rowan-Szal, “Program diversity and treatment retention rates in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS),” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 279–293, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. H. S. Harris, D. Kivlahan, P. G. Barnett, and J. W. Finney, “Longer length of stay is not associated with better outcomes in VHA's substance abuse residential rehabilitation treatment programs,” Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 68–79, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Witbrodt, J. Bond, L. A. Kaskutas et al., “Day hospital and residential addiction treatment: randomized and nonrandomized managed care clients,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 947–959, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. T. McLellan, H. Kushner, D. Metzger et al., “The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 199–213, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. W. Finney, A. C. Hahn, and R. H. Moos, “The effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse: the need to focus on mediators and moderators of setting effects,” Addiction, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 1773–1796, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. R. Culbreth, “Substance abuse counselors with and without a personal history of chemical dependency: a review of the literature,” Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 67–82, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. A. Cummings, “Inpatient versus outpatient treatment of substance abuse: recent developments in the controversy,” Contemporary Family Therapy, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 507–520, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. A. Harrison and S. E. Asche, “Comparison of substance abuse treatment outcomes for inpatients and outpatients,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 207–220, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. P. Mattick and T. Jarvis, “In-patient setting and long duration for the treatment of alcohol dependence? Out-patient care is as good,” Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 13, pp. 127–135, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  42. B. McCrady, R. Longabaugh, and E. Fink, “Cost effectiveness of alcoholism treatment in partial hospital versus inpatient settings after brief inpatient treatment: 12-month outcomes,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 708–713, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. R. Miller and R. K. Hester, “Inpatient alcoholism treatment. Who benefits?” American Psychologist, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 794–805, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. M. Najavits and R. D. Weiss, “Variations in therapist effectiveness in the treatment of patients with substance use disorders: an empirical review,” Addiction, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. 679–688, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. G. Rychtarik, G. J. Connors, R. B. Whitney, N. B. McGillicuddy, J. M. Fitterling, and P. W. Wirtz, “Treatment settings for persons with alcoholism: evidence for matching clients to inpatient versus outpatient care,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 277–289, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. D. Mee-Lee, G. D. Shulman, J. F. Callahan et al., Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, American Society of Addiction Medicine, Chevy Chase, Md, USA, 2001.
  47. Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  48. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, “NA White Booklet: Narcotics Anonymous,” 1986, http://www.na.org.
  49. N. G. Hoffmann, S. S. DeHart, and J. A. Fulkerson, “Medical care utilization as a function of recovery status following chemical addictions treatment,” Journal of Addictive Diseases, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97–108, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. N. G. Hoffmann and N. S. Miller, “Treatment outcomes for abstinence-based programs,” Psychiatric Annals, vol. 22, pp. 402–408, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  51. M. P. Mundt, S. Parthasarathy, F. W. Chi, S. Sterling, and C. I. Campbell, “12-step participation reduces medical use costs among adolescents with a history of alcohol and other drug treatment,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 126, pp. 124–130, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. R. McKay, “Is there a case for extended interventions for alcohol and drug use disorders?” Addiction, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 1594–1610, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. M. Jellinek, The Disease Concept of Alcoholism, Hillhouse, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1960.
  54. A. I. Leshner, “Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters,” Science, vol. 278, no. 5335, pp. 45–47, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, “The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure,” NIH Publication 98-4080, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  56. C. P. O’Brien, “Treatment of alcoholism as a chronic disorder,” Alcohol, vol. 11, pp. 433–437, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. M. Vannicelli, “Impact of aftercare in the treatment of alcoholics. A cross-lagged panel analysis,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1875–1886, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. M. Costello, “Alcoholism aftercare and outcome: cross-lagged panel and path analyses,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. G. Hoffmann, “Congressional Briefing, for the Senate Task Force on Health Care,” Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  60. N. S. Miller, N. G. Hoffmann, F. Ninonuevo, and B. M. Astrachan, “Lifetime diagnosis of major depression as a multivariate predictor of treatment outcome for inpatients with substance use disorders from abstinence-based programs,” Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 127–137, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. N. S. Miller, D. Klamen, N. G. Hoffmann, and J. A. Flaherty, “Prevalence of depression and alcohol and other drug dependence in addictions treatment populations,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 111–124, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. G. Hoffmann, P. A. Harrison, and C. A. Belille, “Alcoholics anonymous after treatment: attendance and abstinence,” International Journal of the Addictions, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 311–318, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. P. A. Harrison and N. G. Hoffmann, CATOR Report: Adult Outpatient Treatment Perspective on Admission and Outcome, Ramsey Clinic Department of Psychiatry, St. Paul, Minn, USA, 1988.
  64. N. G. Hoffmann and P. A. Harrison, CATOR Report: Treatment Outcome-Adult Inpatients Two Years Later, Ramsey Clinic Department of Psychiatry, St. Paul, Minn, USA, 1988.
  65. R. Fiorentine, “After drug treatment: are 12-step programs effective in maintaining abstinence?” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 93–116, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. P. C. Ouimette, R. H. Moos, and J. W. Finney, “Influence of outpatient treatment and 12-step group involvement on one-year substance abuse treatment outcomes,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 513–522, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. Sannibale, P. Hurkett, E. Van Den Bossche et al., “Aftercare attendance and post-treatment functioning of severely substance dependent residential treatment clients,” Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 181–190, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. D. Walker, D. M. Donovan, D. R. Kivlahan, and M. R. O'Leary, “Lenght of stay, neuropsychological performance, and aftercare: influences on alcohol treatment outcome,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 900–911, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Johnsen and L. G. Herringer, “A note on the utilization of common support activities and relapse following substance abuse treatment,” The Journal of Psychology, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 73–77, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. N. S. Miller, F. Ninonuevo, N. G. Hoffmann, and B. M. Astrachan, “Prediction of treatment outcomes: lifetime depression versus the continuum of care,” American Journal on Addictions, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 243–253, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. N. S. Miller, F. G. Ninonuevo, D. L. Klamen, N. G. Hoffmann, and D. E. Smith, “Integration of treatment and posttreatment variables in predicting results of abstinence-based outpatient treatment after one year,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 239–248, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. Moos, J. Schaefer, J. Andrassy, and B. Moos, “Outpatient mental health care, self-help groups, and patients' one-year treatment outcomes,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 273–287, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. V. Wouter, B. Michael, and M. Neil, “Long-term outcomes of aftercare participation following various forms of drug abuse treatment in Scotland,” Journal of Drug Issues, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 703–728, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. G. Brown, P. Seraganian, J. Tremblay, and H. Annis, “Matching substance abuse aftercare treatments to client characteristics,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 585–604, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. G. J. Connors, J. S. Tonigan, and W. R. Miller, “A longitudinal model of intake symptomatology, AA participation and outcome: retrospective study of the project MATCH outpatient and aftercare samples,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 817–825, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. N. G. Hoffmann, S. S. DeHart, and A. Gogineni, “Alcohol dependence as a chronic health problem among older adults,” The Southwest Journal on Aging, vol. 14, pp. 57–64, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  77. Project MATCH Research Group, “Project MATCH: rationale and methods for a multisite clinical trial matching patients to alcoholism treatment,” Alcoholism, vol. 17, pp. 1130–1145, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  78. J. P. Allen, M. E. Mattson, W. R. Miller et al., “Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 7–29, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. Allen, R. F. Anton, T. F. Babor et al., “Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes,” Alcoholism, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1300–1311, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. J. R. McKay, D. H. A. van Horn, K. G. Lynch, M. Ivey, M. S. Cary, and M. L. Drapkin, “An adaptive approach for identifying cocaine dependent patients who benefit from extended continuing care,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 81, pp. 1063–1073, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  81. J. Allen, R. F. Anton, T. F. Babor et al., “Project MATCH secondary a priori hypotheses,” Addiction, vol. 92, no. 12, pp. 1671–1698, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. T. G. Brown, P. Seraganian, J. Tremblay, and H. Annis, “Process and outcome changes with relapse prevention versus 12-step aftercare programs for substance abusers,” Addiction, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 677–689, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. R. Ito, D. M. Donovan, and J. J. Hall, “Relapse prevention in alcohol aftercare: effects on drinking outcome, change process, and aftercare attendance,” British Journal of Addiction, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 171–181, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. L. DuPont, A. T. McLellan, W. L. White, L. J. Merlo, and M. S. Gold, “Setting the standard for recovery: physicians' health programs,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 159–171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. A. T. McLellan, G. S. Skipper, M. Campbell, and R. L. DuPont, “Five year outcomes in a cohort study of physicians treated for substance use disorders in the United States,” British Medical Journal, vol. 337, Article ID a2038, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. J. Lash, “Increasing participation in substance abuse aftercare treatment,” American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. J. Lash and S. L. Blosser, “Increasing adherence to substance abuse aftercare group therapy,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. J. Lash, J. L. Burden, B. R. Monteleone, and L. P. Lehmann, “Social reinforcement of substance abuse treatment aftercare participation: impact on outcome,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 337–342, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. J. R. McKay, D. S. Shepard, K. G. Lynch et al., “The effectiveness of telephone-based continuing care in the clinical management of alcohol and cocaine use disorders: 12-month outcomes,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 967–979, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. J. R. McKay, K. G. Lynch, D. S. Shepard, J. Morgenstern, R. F. Forman, and H. M. Pettinati, “Do patient and characteristics and initial progress in treatment moderate the effectiveness of telephone-based continuing care for substance use disorders?” Addiction, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 216–226, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. R. McKay, D. H. A. Van Horn, D. W. Oslin et al., “A randomized trial of extended telephone-based continuing care for alcohol dependence: within-treatment substance use outcomes,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 912–923, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. R. McKay, K. G. Lynch, D. S. Shepard, and H. M. Pettinati, “The effectiveness of telephone-based continuing care for alcohol and cocaine dependence: 24-month outcomes,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 199–207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. McKellar, T. Wagner, A. Harris, M. Oehlert, S. Buckley, and R. Moos, “One-year outcomes of telephone case monitoring for patients with substance use disorder,” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 37, pp. 1069–1074, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. J. C. Blodgett, N. C. Maisel, I. L. Fuh, P. L. Wilbourne, and J. W. Finney, “How effective is continuing care for substance use disorders? A meta-analytic review,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, vol. 46, pp. 87–97, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. J. R. McKay, A. I. Alterman, J. S. Cacciola, C. P. O'Brien, J. M. Koppenhaver, and D. S. Shepard, “Continuing care for cocaine dependence: comprehensive 2-year outcomes,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 420–427, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. J. Morgenstern, E. Labouvie, B. S. McCrady, C. W. Kahler, and R. M. Frey, “Affiliation with alcoholics anonymous after treatment: a study of its therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 768–777, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus