Table 2: Psychiatric history and clinical characteristics.

Clinical measuresBipolar disordersComparison
Group effect
MeansdMeansd df

Age in years @ onset 1st
Psychiatric Illness
15.7(5.8)21.3(11.7) 2.72670.008
Global assessment of function
 Average over the past year68.7(8.7)72.6(9.6)1.80740.076
 Lowest week during last year54.8(13.7)64.9(12.1)3.41740.001
Duration of current treatment (months)77.3(107.1)46.6(67.4)1.43740.158
Hypomanic and manic symptoms5.7(1.5)0.14(.50)18.1646<0.001

%%Fisher’s Exact

Episodes during the past year
Manic episodes6(2)0(0)0.174
Depressive episodes 31(10)0(0)0.000
Mixed episodes50(16)0(0)0.000
Hospitalizations (lifetime)
 063(20)98(41)
 119(6)2(1)
 2 or more19(6)0(0)<0.0001
Current psychotropic medications
 Antipsychotics44(14)7(3)<0.001
 SSRI47(14)32(14)0.228
 Antidepressants23(7)14(6)0.363
 Mood stabilizers72(23)0(0)<0.001
 Anxiolytics48(15)41(18)0.638
 Stimulants13(4)9(4)0.711
 Sleep19(6)18(8)1.00
 Phosphodiesterase10(3)2(1)0.300
 Other16(5)5(2)0.129
Number of medications prescribed
Mean (sd) -test
2.8(1.3)1.3(1.3)5.20 74<0.001
Bipolar family history
First degree relatives
53(16)5(2)<0.001
Significant medical illness (during the last year)34(11)30(13)0.803

indicates significance, separate variance est., and trend.