Psychiatry Journal / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Serious Psychological Distress and Emergency Room Use among Adults with Multimorbidity in the United States

Table 1

Characteristics of adults with multimorbidity by serious psychological distress status. National Health Interview Survey, 2015.

AllTotal sampleSPDNo SPD value
Wt.%Wt.%
  (Col%)
Wt.%
  (Col%)
12,869100.07725.812,09794.2

ER use<0.001
 Yes3,66326.841254.13,25125.2
 No
9,20673.236045.98,84674.8

Predisposing factors
Sex<0.001
  Women7,35053.050962.86,84152.4
  Men5,51947.026337.25,25647.6
Age in years<0.001
 22–39 years1,13110.210819.01,0239.7
 40–49 years1,39412.414416.81,25012.1
 50–64 years4,24136.333344.03,90835.8
 65 and older6,10341.118720.25,91642.3
Race/ethnicity0.012
  Hispanic1,48010.413915.31,34110.1
  Non-Hispanic white8,85972.850069.18,35973.1
  Non-Hispanic black1,88911.99510.51,79412.0
  Other non-Hispanic races6414.9385.16034.9

Enabling factors
Marital status<0.001
  Married6,16563.027947.55,88664.0
  Widowed, separated, divorced5,13527.535635.74,77927.1
  Never1,5499.413416.91,4158.9
Education level<0.001
  Less than high school2,10414.522329.81,88113.6
  High school3,55927.321026.93,34927.5
  Greater than high school7,14957.733743.26,81258.9
Poverty status<0.001
 <100% FPL1,94511.129531.51,6509.9
 100–<200%2,74818.521827.22,53017.9
 200–<400%3,47426.515324.43,32126.6
 ≥400%3,84837.07412.13,77438.6
 Missing8546.9324.88227.0
Health insurance<0.001
 Insured12,22895.069186.611,53795.5
 Uninsured6415.08113.45604.5

Need factors
Perceived general health<0.001
 Excellent/very good4,73739.07611.94,66140.6
 Good4,48634.715819.24,32835.7
 Fair/Poor3,64226.353868.93,10423.7
Functional limitations<0.001
 Yes8,54763.071592.07,83261.3
 No4,31236.9578.04,25538.7

Personal health practices
Body mass index0.008
 Underweight /normal3,22324.019726.13,02623.9
 Overweight4,24633.319326.34,05333.8
 Obese5,07639.835442.94,72239.6
 Missing3242.8284.72962.7
Smoking status<0.001
 Nonsmoker6,52151.728537.46,23652.6
 Former smoker4,21032.816620.54,04433.6
 Current Smoker2,12615.432142.11,80513.8
Alcohol use<0.001
 Lifetime abstainer2,58117.914318.22,43818.0
 Former drinker3,08822.924932.12,83922.4
 Current drinker7,12558.737649.76,74959.6
Physical activity<0.001
 Daily6234.9252.75985.1
 Weekly2,82524.87511.22,75025.8
 No exercise8,81166.258675.38,22565.9
 Unable5653.78210.74833.3

External environmental factors
Region of residence0.615
 Northeast2,19717.613215.12,06517.8
 Midwest2,76823.215523.92,61323.2
 South4,60338.628740.64,31638.5
 West3,30120.619820.43,10320.6

Note. Based on 12,869 adults aged over 21 years having two or more physical diseases with and without serious psychological distress (SPD). SPD was defined as a score of 13 or greater on the K6. SPD: serious psychological distress; ER: emergency room; Wt.: weighted; FPL: federal poverty line.