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Rehabilitation Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 659652, 10 pages
Review Article

Traumatic Brain Injury in Sports: A Review

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Mount Sinai Hospital, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1240, New York, NY 10029, USA

Received 5 November 2011; Revised 25 January 2012; Accepted 6 February 2012

Academic Editor: Anne Felicia Ambrose

Copyright © 2012 Christopher S. Sahler and Brian D. Greenwald. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a clinical diagnosis of neurological dysfunction following head trauma, typically presenting with acute symptoms of some degree of cognitive impairment. There are an estimated 1.7 to 3.8 million TBIs each year in the United States, approximately 10 percent of which are due to sports and recreational activities. Most brain injuries are self-limited with symptom resolution within one week, however, a growing amount of data is now establishing significant sequelae from even minor impacts such as headaches, prolonged cognitive impairments, or even death. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment according to standardized guidelines are crucial when treating athletes who may be subjected to future head trauma, possibly increasing their likelihood of long-term impairments.