Table 2: Rating criteria for dip test: good and poor stability.

Dip Test


1. Overall Impression
Smooth, good-quality movement
General control
Controlled change-over between repetitions
Staggered movement
Increased speed to attempt to control movement
Effort to control movement
Trunk “wobble”

2. Weight Distribution
Minimal weight on back leg
Back leg remains oriented in the sagittal plane (i.e. no movement in frontal plane)
Upright trunk
Excessive weight on back leg
Abduction of back leg
Trunk leaning forward or to side

3. Lumbar and Pelvic Alignment
Minimal movement in all three planes
Frontal plane: ASIS level
Sagittal plane: minimal A-P tilt, rotation
Lateral view: stable lordosis, minimal trunk flexion
Discernible movement with pelvis tilting up or down, rotating toward or away from weightbearing leg, tilting in anterior or posterior direction

4. Leg Alignment
Minimal movement out of the starting plane of movement. This takes into account the alignment of the limb, influenced by pelvic width, and Q angle at the kneeDiscernible movement out of the starting plane of movement

5. Foot Alignment
Neutral foot position—remains stable during movementExcessive pronation of foot during squat descent
Externally rotated starting position of lower leg/foot