Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Corrigendum

A corrigendum for this article has been published. To view the corrigendum, please click here.

Radiology Research and Practice
Volume 2013, Article ID 628150, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/628150
Clinical Study

Hepatic Iron Quantification on 3 Tesla (3 T) Magnetic Resonance (MR): Technical Challenges and Solutions

1Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY, USA
2Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
4Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY, USA
5Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY, USA

Received 23 January 2013; Revised 19 April 2013; Accepted 19 April 2013

Academic Editor: Paul Sijens

Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Anwar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. B. Fung, P. Harmatz, M. Milet et al., “Morbidity and mortality in chronically transfused subjects with Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease: a report from the multi-center study of iron overload,” The American Journal of Hematology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 255–265, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. K. Ballas, “Iron overload is a determinant of morbidity and mortality in adult patients with sickle cell disease,” Seminars in Hematology, vol. 38, supplement 1, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. Hershko, G. Graham, G. W. Bates, and E. A. Rachmilewitz, “Non-specific serum iron in thalassaemia: an abnormal serum iron fraction of potential toxicity,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 255–263, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. G. Goddard and G. D. Sweeney, “Ferric nitrilotriacetate: a potent stimulant of in vivo lipid peroxidation in mice,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 24, pp. 3879–3882, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Hershko, G. Link, A. M. Konijn, and Z. I. Cabantchik, “Objectives and mechanism of iron chelation therapy,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1054, pp. 124–135, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Angelucci, G. M. Brittenham, C. E. McLaren et al., “Hepatic iron concentration and total body iron stores in thalassemia major,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 343, no. 5, pp. 327–331, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Voskaridou, M. Douskou, E. Terpos et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of iron overload in patients with beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 736–742, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Voskaridou, M. Douskou, E. Terpos et al., “Deferiprone as an oral iron chelator in sickle cell disease,” Annals of Hematology, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 434–440, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. J. Anderson, S. Holden, B. Davis et al., “Cardiovascular T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance for the early diagnosis of myocardial iron overload,” European Heart Journal, vol. 22, no. 23, pp. 2171–2179, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. C. Wood, C. Enriquez, N. Ghugre et al., “MRI R2 and R2* mapping accurately estimates hepatic iron concentration in transfusion-dependent thalassemia and sickle cell disease patients,” Blood, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 1460–1465, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Angelucci, D. Baronciani, G. Lucarelli et al., “Needle liver biopsy in thalassaemia: analyses of diagnostic accuracy and safety in 1184 consecutive biopsies,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 757–761, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. D. Stark, N. M. Bass, and A. A. Moss, “Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of experimentally induced liver disease,” Radiology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 743–751, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. G. Klein, D. R. Spahn, and J. L. Carson, “Red blood cell transfusion in clinical practice,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9585, pp. 415–426, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Raghupathy, D. Manwani, and J. A. Little, “Iron overload in sickle cell disease,” Advances in Hematology, vol. 2010, Article ID 272940, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. V. Adamkiewicz, M. R. Abboud, C. Paley et al., “Serum ferritin level changes in children with sickle cell disease on chronic blood transfusion are nonlinear and are associated with iron load and liver injury,” Blood, vol. 114, no. 21, pp. 4632–4638, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. V. J. Bush, T. P. Moyer, K. P. Batts, and J. E. Parisi, “Essential and toxic element concentrations in fresh and formalin-fixed human autopsy tissues,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 284–294, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. D. Chasteen and P. M. Harrison, “Mineralization in ferritin: an efficient means of iron storage,” Journal of Structural Biology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 182–194, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. D. Jensen, F. T. Jensen, T. Christensen, J. L. Nielsen, and J. Ellegaard, “Relationship between hepatocellular injury and transfusional iron overload prior to and during iron chelation with desferrioxamine: a study in adult patients with acquired anemias,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Storey, A. A. Thompson, C. L. Carqueville, J. C. Wood, R. A. de Freitas, and C. K. Rigsby, “R2* imaging of transfusional iron burden at 3T and comparison with 1.5T,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 540–547, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. J. Noetzli, S. M. Carson, A. S. Nord, T. D. Coates, and J. C. Wood, “Longitudinal analysis of heart and liver iron in thalassemia major,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 2973–2978, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. Wood, J. M. Tyszka, S. Carson, M. D. Nelson, and T. D. Coates, “Myocardial iron loading in transfusion-dependent thalassemia and sickle cell disease,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 1934–1936, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. M. Brittenham, D. E. Farrell, and J. W. Harris, “Magnetic-susceptibility measurement of human iron stores,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 307, no. 27, pp. 1671–1675, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Voskaridou, M. Douskou, E. Terpos et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of iron overload in patients with beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease,” British Journal of Haematology, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 736–742, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus