Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Radiology Research and Practice
Volume 2015, Article ID 202806, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/202806
Review Article

Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

1Department of Radiology, Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Neurosurgery, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Neurology, Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 27 July 2014; Accepted 11 December 2014

Academic Editor: Paul Sijens

Copyright © 2015 Morteza Sanei Taheri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Bernaerts, F. M. Vanhoenacker, P. M. Parizel et al., “Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings,” European Radiology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1876–1890, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. J. Berenguer, S. Moreno, F. Laguna et al., “Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 326, no. 10, pp. 668–672, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. J. E. Vidal, A. C. P. de Oliveira, F. B. Filho et al., “Tuberculous brain abscess in AIDS patients: report of three cases and literature review,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 201–207, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. R. B. Rock, M. Olin, C. A. Baker, T. W. Molitor, and P. K. Peterson, “Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathogenesis and clinical aspects,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 243–261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. J. Burrill, C. J. Williams, G. Bain, G. Conder, A. L. Hine, and R. R. Misra, “Tuberculosis: a radiologic review,” Radiographics, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1255–1273, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. G. Bathla, G. Khandelwal, V. G. Maller, and A. Gupta, “Manifestations of cerebral tuberculosis,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 124–131, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. V. Ahluwalia, G. Dayananda Sagar, T. P. Singh, N. Arora, S. Narayan, and M. M. Singh, “MRI spectrum of CNS tuberculosis,” Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 83–90, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. C. Raviglione, D. E. Snider Jr., and A. Kochi, “Global epidemiology of tuberculosis: morbidity and mortality of a worldwide epidemic,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no. 3, pp. 220–226, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Andronikou, J. Wilmshurst, M. Hatherill, and R. VanToorn, “Distribution of brain infarction in children with tuberculous meningitis and correlation with outcome score at 6 months,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1289–1294, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. D. K. Dastur, D. K. Manghani, and P. M. Udani, “Pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms in neurotuberculosis,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 733–752, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Andronikou, B. Smith, M. Hatherhill, H. Douis, and J. Wilmshurst, “Definitive neuroradiological diagnostic features of tuberculous meningitis in children,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 876–885, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. G. Uysal, G. Köse, A. Güven, and B. Diren, “Magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of childhood central nervous system tuberculosis,” Infection, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 148–153, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Arbeláez, E. Medina, F. Restrepo, and M. Castillo, “Cerebral tuberculosis,” Seminars in Roentgenology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 474–481, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. R. Jinkins, R. Gupta, and J. Rodriguez-Carbajal, “MR imaging of central nervous system tuberculosis,” Radiologic Clinics of North America, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 771–786, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Morgado and N. Ruivo, “Imaging meningo-encephalic tuberculosis,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. G. V. Shah, “Central nervous system tuberculosis: imaging manifestations,” Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 355–374, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Parmar, Y.-Y. Sitoh, P. Anand, V. Chua, and F. Hui, “Contrast-enhanced flair imaging in the evaluation of infectious leptomeningeal diseases,” European Journal of Radiology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. D. K. Dastur, V. S. Lalitha, P. M. Udani, and U. Parekh, “The brain and meninges in tuberculous meningitis-gross pathology in 100 cases and pathogenesis.,” Neurology India, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 86–100, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. L. H. Whiteman, “Neuroimaging of central nervous system tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients,” Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 199–214, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Sharma, R. K. Garg, R. Verma, M. K. Singh, and R. Shukla, “Incidence, predictors and prognostic value of cranial nerve involvement in patients with tuberculous meningitis: a retrospective evaluation,” European Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 289–295, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. R. K. Garg, “Tuberculosis of the central nervous system,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 75, no. 881, pp. 133–140, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Trivedi, S. Saksena, and R. K. Gupta, “Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis,” Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 256–265, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. R. K. Gupta, N. Husain, M. K. Kathuria, S. Datta, R. K. S. Rathore, and M. Husain, “Magnetization transfer MR imaging correlation with histopathology in intracranial tuberculomas,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 656–663, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. S. Saxena, M. Prakash, S. Kumar, and R. K. Gupta, “Comparative evaluation of magnetization transfer contrast and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences in brain tuberculoma,” Clinical Radiology, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 787–793, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. R. K. Gupta, M. K. Kathuria, and S. Pradhan, “Magnetization transfer MR imaging in CNS tuberculosis,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 867–875, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Gupta, “Magnetization transfer MR imaging in central nervous system infections,” Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. K. Gupta, D. K. Vatsal, N. Husain et al., “Differentiation of tuberculous from pyogenic brain abscesses with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy and magnetization transfer MR imaging,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1503–1509, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. K. Kim, K. H. Chang, C. J. Kim, J. M. Goo, M. C. Kook, and M. H. Han, “Intracranial tuberculoma: comparison of MR with pathologic findings,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1903–1908, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. D. Ku and S. Yoo, “Extensive meningeal and prenchymal calcified tuberculoma as long-term residual sequelae of tuberculous meningitis,” Neurology India, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 521–522, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. B. Afghani and J. M. Lieberman, “Paradoxical enlargement or development of intracranial tuberculomas during therapy: case report and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1092–1099, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Lorber, “Intracranial calcifications following tuberculous meningitis in,” Acta Radiologica, vol. 50, no. 1-2, pp. 204–210, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Krishnan, B. D. Robertson, and G. Thwaites, “The mechanisms and consequences of the extra-pulmonary dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis,” Tuberculosis, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 361–366, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. P. M. Udani and D. K. Dastur, “Tuberculous encephalopathy with and without meningitis clinical features and pathological correlations,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 541–561, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus