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Sarcoma
Volume 2011, Article ID 548151, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/548151
Review Article

Using Epidemiology and Genomics to Understand Osteosarcoma Etiology

Clinical Genetics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS/7018, Rockville, MD 20892, USA

Received 14 September 2010; Revised 9 November 2010; Accepted 19 December 2010

Academic Editor: Stephen Lessnick

Copyright © 2011 Sharon A. Savage and Lisa Mirabello. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Osteosarcoma is a primary bone malignancy that typically occurs during adolescence but also has a second incidence peak in the elderly. It occurs most commonly in the long bones, although there is variability in location between age groups. The etiology of osteosarcoma is not well understood; it occurs at increased rates in individuals with Paget disease of bone, after therapeutic radiation, and in certain cancer predisposition syndromes. It also occurs more commonly in taller individuals, but a strong environmental component to osteosarcoma risk has not been identified. Several studies suggest that osteosarcoma may be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes important in growth and tumor suppression but the studies are limited by sample size. Herein, we review the epidemiology of osteosarcoma as well as its known and suspected risk factors in an effort to gain insight into its etiology.