Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Sarcoma
Volume 2011, Article ID 959248, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/959248
Review Article

The Molecular Pathogenesis of Osteosarcoma: A Review

1Department of Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, St. Vincent's Hospital, SVHM, L3, Daly Wing, 35 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy VIC 3065, Australia
2School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Victoria University, St. Albans, VIC 3021, Australia
3Sarcoma Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia

Received 15 September 2010; Accepted 21 February 2011

Academic Editor: H. Kovar

Copyright © 2011 Matthew L. Broadhead et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [193 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Ryuichiro Kimura, Chie Ishikawa, Takayoshi Rokkaku, Ralf Janknecht, and Naoki Mori, “Phosphorylated c-Jun and Fra-1 induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 and thereby regulate invasion activity of 143B osteosarcoma cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, vol. 1813, no. 8, pp. 1543–1553, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Li-hong Liu, Hui Li, Jin-ping Li, Hui Zhong, Han-chon Zhang, Jia Chen, and Tao Xiao, “miR-125b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells through down-regulation of STAT3,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 416, no. 1-2, pp. 31–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wen Zeng, Rong Wan, Yuehuan Zheng, Shree Ram Singh, and Yiyong Wei, “Hypoxia, stem cells and bone tumor,” Cancer Letters, vol. 313, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicolas Sévère, François-Xavier Dieudonné, Caroline Marty, Dominique Modrowski, Ana Patiño-García, Fernando Lecanda, Olivia Fromigué, and Pierre J Marie, “Targeting the E3 ubiquitin casitas B-lineage lymphoma decreases osteosarcoma cell growth and survival and reduces tumorigenesis,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2108–2117, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gaëlle Pierron, Franck Tirode, Carlo Lucchesi, Stéphanie Reynaud, Stelly Ballet, Sarah Cohen-Gogo, Virginie Perrin, Jean-Michel Coindre, and Olivier Delattre, “A new subtype of bone sarcoma defined by BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusion,” Nature Genetics, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 461–466, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hideki Kitajima, Yuji Komizu, and Ryuichi Ueoka, “Hybrid liposomes inhibit growth and invasion of human osteosarcoma cells leading to apoptosis,” Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1784–1787, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Meimei Bao, Zhifei Cao, Di Yu, Shilong Fu, Gaochuan Zhang, Ping Yang, Yanyan Pan, Bo Yang, Hongyan Han, and Quansheng Zhou, “Columbamine suppresses the proliferation and neovascularization of metastatic osteosarcoma U2OS cells with low cytotoxicity,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 215, no. 3, pp. 174–180, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • George T. Calvert, R. Lor Randall, Kevin B. Jones, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Stephen Lessnick, and Joshua D. Schiffman, “At-Risk Populations for Osteosarcoma: The Syndromes and Beyond,” Sarcoma, vol. 2012, pp. 1–9, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Heidi M. Namløs, Stine H. Kresse, Christoph R. Müller, Jørn Henriksen, Rita Holdhus, Gunnar Sæter, Øyvind S. Bruland, Bodil Bjerkehagen, Vidar M. Steen, and Ola Myklebost, “Global gene expression profiling of human osteosarcomas reveals metastasis-associated chemokine pattern,” Sarcoma, vol. 2012, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Imelda M. McGonnell, Agamemnon E. Grigoriadis, Eric W.-F. Lam, Joanna S. Price, and Andrew Sunters, “A specific role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase and AKT in osteoblasts?,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 3, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhigang Wang, Haikang Cai, Lijun Lin, Mingjie Tang, and Haiqing Cai, “Upregulated expression of microRNA-214 is linked to tumor progression and adverse prognosis in pediatric osteosarcoma,” Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sampoorna Satheesha, and Beat W. Schäfer, “Cancer Stem Cells in Pediatric Sarcomas,” Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells, Volume 11, vol. 11, pp. 111–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Magdalena Gorska, Urszula Popowska, Narcyz Knap, Jakub Antoniewicz, Takashi Wakabayashi, Michal Wozniak, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Michal Aleksander Zmijewski, Claudia Campanella, Francesco Cappello, Tomasz Wasiewicz, Alicja Kuban-Jankowska, Agnieszka Daca, and Alicja Sielicka, “Geldanamycin-Induced Osteosarcoma Cell Death Is Associated with Hyperacetylation and Loss of Mitochondrial Pool of Heat Shock Protein 60 (Hsp60),” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katonis, Datsis, Karantanas, Kampouroglou, Lianoudakis, Licoudis, Papoutsopoulou, and Alpantaki, “Spinal osteosarcoma,” Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology, vol. 7, pp. 199–208, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jilong Yang, and Wei Zhang, “New molecular insights into osteosarcoma targeted therapy,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 398–406, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amir-Shaya Sharili, Steve Allen, Ken Smith, Joanna Price, and Imelda M. McGonnell, “Snail2 promotes osteosarcoma cell motility through remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton and regulates tumor development,” Cancer Letters, vol. 333, no. 2, pp. 170–179, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nicolas Jullien, François-Xavier Dieudonné, Nadia Habel, Caroline Marty, Dominique Modrowski, Ana Patino, Fernando Lecanda, Nicolas Sévère, and Pierre J. Marie, “ErbB3 silencing reduces osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo,” Gene, vol. 521, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hideki Kitajima, Yuji Komizu, Hideaki Ichihara, Koichi Goto, and Ryuichi Ueoka, “Hybrid liposomes inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis of murine osteosarcoma cells,” Cancer Medicine, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haiqing Cai, Lijun Lin, Haikang Cai, Mingjie Tang, and Zhigang Wang, “Prognostic evaluation of microRNA-210 expression in pediatric osteosarcoma,” Medical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 2, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Guangxin Zhou, Xin Shi, Junfeng Zhang, Sujia Wu, and Jianning Zhao, “MicroRNAs in osteosarcoma: From biological players to clinical contributors, a review,” Journal Of International Medical Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saqib Noor, Hjörleifur Skorri Þormóðsson, Colin Thomas Zervas, Tho Ly, and James Gollogly, “Limb versus life—the outcomes of osteosarcoma in Cambodia,” International Orthopaedics, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jun Chen, Yang Song, Jing Yang, Li Gong, Peng Zhao, Yong Zhang, and Haichuan Su, “The up-regulation of cysteine-rich protein 61 induced by transforming growth factor beta enhances osteosarcoma cell migration,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 384, no. 1-2, pp. 269–277, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bing Tu, Zhao-Xiang Peng, Qi-Ming Fan, Lin Du, Wei Yan, and Ting-Ting Tang, “Osteosarcoma cells promote the production of pro-tumor cytokines in mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting their osteogenic differentiation through the TGF-β/Smad2/3 pathway,” Experimental Cell Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J. Fedder, A. Loft, E. T. Parner, S. Rasmussen, and A. Pinborg, “Neonatal outcome and congenital malformations in children born after ICSI with testicular or epididymal sperm: a controlled national cohort study,” Human Reproduction, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 230–240, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Angelika Eggert, “Update: Personalized diagnostics and therapies for pediatric cancer patients,” Klinische Padiatrie, vol. 225, no. 3, pp. 107–109, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wenjiu Yang, Yongming Xi, Lina Zang, and Min Niu, “Role of relaxin-2 in human primary osteosarcoma,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Leonard C. Marais, and Nando Ferreira, “Osteosarcoma in Adult Patients Living with HIV/AIDS,” ISRN Oncology, vol. 2013, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhaoming Ye, Huiming Tao, Xiankuan Xie, and Disheng Yang, “Effects of combined c-myc and Bmi-1 siRNAs on the growth and chemosensitivity of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 168–172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhansheng Deng, Yi Luo, and Jing Chen, “Pivotal regulatory network and genes in osteosarcoma,” Archives Of Medical Science, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 569–575, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna M. Friedhuber, Vijay Chandolu, Somkamon Manchun, Osaana Donkor, Pornsak Sriamornsak, and Crispin R. Dass, “Nucleotropic doxorubicin nanoparticles decrease cancer cell viability, destroy mitochondria, induce autophagy and enhance tumour necrosis,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Oktay Tacar, Sivanjah Indumathy, Mei Lin Tan, Swati Baindur-Hudson, Anna M. Friedhuber, and Crispin R. Dass, “Cardiomyocyte apoptosis vs autophagy with prolonged doxorubicin treatment: comparison with osteosarcoma cells,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • B K A Seong, J Lau, T Adderley, L Kee, D Chaukos, M Pienkowska, D Malkin, P Thorner, and M S Irwin, “SATB2 enhances migration and invasion in osteosarcoma by regulating genes involved in cytoskeletal organization,” Oncogene, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhengwen Sun, Tongqing Zhang, Huanyu Hong, Qingxia Liu, and Haiguang Zhang, “miR-202 suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells by downregulating Gli2,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xinhui Zhu, Xueping Du, Xiaolong Deng, Hong Yi, Shengyu Cui, Wei Liu, Aiguo Shen, and Zhiming Cui, “C6 ceramide sensitizes pemetrexed-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in osteosarcoma cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qingnan Hong, Jun Fang, Youwang Pang, and Jinan Zheng, “Prognostic value of the microRNA-29 family in patients with primary osteosarcomas,” Medical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tielong Liu, Weiwei Zhou, Fei Zhang, Guodong Shi, Honglin Teng, Jianru Xiao, and Yan Wang, “Knockdown of IRX2 inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion by the AKT/MMP9 signaling pathway,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 169–174, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hiroshi Hatano, Tetsuro Morita, Takashi Ariizumi, Hiroyuki Kawashima, and Akira Ogose, “Malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia: A case report,” Oncology Letters, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 384–386, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J Zhang Jian, Jh Zuo Jianhong, Ms Lei Mingsheng, S Wu Song, Xf Zang Xiaofang, and Cy Zhang Chaoyue, “Ezrin promotes invasion and migration of the MG63 osteosarcoma cell,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 127, no. 10, pp. 1954–1959, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Neelam Wadhwa, “Osteosarcoma: Diagnostic dilemmas in histopathology and prognostic factors,” Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 247–254, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Akio Sakamoto, “The molecular pathogenesis of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma,” Indian Journal of Orthopaedics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 262–265, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Meng Xu, Hua Jin, Cheng-Xiong Xu, Wen-Zhi Bi, and Yan Wang, “MiR-34c inhibits osteosarcoma metastasis and chemoresistance,” Medical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Elodie Blanchet, Marieke Vansteelandt, Ronan Le Bot, Maxim Egorov, Yann Guitton, Yves Francois Pouchus, and Olivier Grovel, “Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of ligerin and new fumagillin analogs against osteosarcoma,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 79, pp. 244–250, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jeffrey W. Martin, Susan Chilton-MacNeill, Madhuri Koti, Andre J. van Wijnen, Jeremy A. Squire, and Maria Zielenska, “Digital Expression Profiling Identifies RUNX2, CDC5L, MDM2, RECQL4, and CDK4 as Potential Predictive Biomarkers for Neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy Response in Paediatric Osteosarcoma,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 5, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jir-You Wang, Po-Kuei Wu, Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chuen-Chuan Yen, Giun-Yi Hung, Cheng-Fong Chen, Shih-Chieh Hung, Shih-Fen Tsai, Chien-Lin Liu, Tain-Hsiung Chen, and Wei-Ming Chen, “Manipulation Therapy Prior to Diagnosis Induced Primary Osteosarcoma Metastasis-From Clinical to Basic Research,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 5, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sameer H Issaq, Beverly A Teicher, and Anne Monks, “Bioenergetic properties of human sarcoma cells help define sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors,” Cell Cycle, vol. 13, no. 7, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lei Zhang, Qian Zhou, Ning Zhang, Weixu Li, Meidan Ying, Wanjing Ding, Bo Yang, and Qiaojun He, “E2F1 impairs all-trans retinoic acid-induced osteogenic differentiation of osteosarcoma via promoting ubiquitination-mediated degradation of RARα,” Cell Cycle, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 0–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giulia Bernardini, Marcella Laschi, Michela Geminiani, and Annalisa Santucci, “Proteomics of osteosarcoma,” Expert Review of Proteomics, pp. 1–13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Di Yu, Shilong Fu, Zhifei Cao, Meimei Bao, Gaochuan Zhang, Yanyan Pan, Wenming Liu, and Quansheng Zhou, “Unraveling the novel anti-osteosarcoma function of coptisine and its mechanisms,” Toxicology Letters, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jose Miguel P. Ferreira de Oliveira, Catarina Remedios, Helena Oliveira, Pedro Pinto, Francisco Pinho, Sonia Pinho, Maria Costa, and Conceicao Santos, “Sulforaphane Induces DNA Damage and Mitotic Abnormalities in Human Osteosarcoma MG-63 Cells: Correlation with Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis,” Nutrition and Cancer-An International Journal, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Raj Kumar Mongre, Simrinder Singh Sodhi, Mrinmoy Ghosh, Jeong Hyun Kim, Nameun Kim, Neelesh Sharma, and Dong Kee Jeong, “A New Paradigm to Mitigate Osteosarcoma by Regulation of MicroRNAs and Suppression of the NF-κB Signaling Cascade,” Development & Reproduciton, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 197–212, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dalia M. Abd El-Rehim, and Nisreen A.A. Osman, “Expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 8 and endostatin in human osteosarcoma: Implication in tumor progression and prognosis,” Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pierre J. Marie, “Osteoblast dysfunctions in bone diseases: from cellular and molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Sun, and David K. Mills, “Halloysite nanotube-based drug delivery system for treating osteosarcoma,” 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2014, pp. 2920–2923, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiaozhong Zhu, Jiong Mei, and Zhiyuan Wang, “Aurora-A kinase: Potential tumor marker of osteosarcoma,” Journal Of Cancer Research And Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. C102–C107, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Weihua Di, Muhammad Khan, Azhar Rasul, Meiyan Sun, Yujie Sui, Lili Zhong, Longfei Yang, Qi Zhu, Liangtao Feng, and Tonghui Ma, “Isoalantolactone inhibits constitutive NF-kappa B activation and induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in osteosarcoma U2OS cells through mitochondrial dysfunction,” Oncology Reports, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1585–1593, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Audrey Lamora, Julie Talbot, Gwenola Bougras, Jerome Amiaud, Marion Leduc, Julie Chesneau, Julien Taurelle, Verena Stresing, Marie Cecile Le Deley, Marie Francoise Heymann, Dominique Heymann, Francoise Redini, and Franck Verrecchia, “Overexpression of Smad7 Blocks Primary Tumor Growth and Lung Metastasis Development in Osteosarcoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 20, no. 19, pp. 5097–5112, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Meng Xu, Hua Jin, Cheng-Xiong Xu, Bo Sun, Zhi-Gang Song, Wen-Zhi Bi, and Yan Wang, “miR-382 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Metastasis and Relapse by Targeting Y Box-Binding Protein 1,” Molecular Therapy, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haiqing Cai, Lijun Lin, Haikang Cai, Mingjie Tang, and Zhigang Wang, “Combined MicroRNA-340 and ROCK1 mRNA Profiling Predicts Tumor Progression and Prognosis in Pediatric Osteosarcoma,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 560–573, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vani Vijayakumar, Rachel Lowery, Xu Zhang, Chindo Hicks, Luminita Rezeanu, Jennifer Barr, Henry Giles, Srinivasan Vijayakumar, and Gail Megason, “Pediatric osteosarcoma: A single institution's experience,” Southern Medical Journal, vol. 107, no. 11, pp. 671–675, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yi-Chin Fong, Chih-Hsin Tang, Hsiao-Chi Tsai, Hong-Lin Su, Chun-Yin Huang, and Chin-Jung Hsu, “CTGF increases matrix metalloproteinases expression and subsequently promotes tumor metastasis in human osteosarcoma through down-regulating miR-519d,” Oncotarget, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 3800–3812, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hua Jin, Cheng-Xiong Xu, Bo Sun, Meng Xu, Zhi Mao, Wen-Zhi Bi, and Yan Wang, “miR-382 inhibits tumor growth and enhance chemosensitivity in osteosarcoma,” Oncotarget, vol. 5, no. 19, pp. 9472–9483, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zandong Zhao, Jian Wang, Lanbo Yang, Zhanjun Shi, Mingqiang Guan, Jun Xiao, Zhihan Li, Kun Lu, and Liang Zhao, “Targeting osteosarcoma vasculature with peptide obtained by phage display,” Wspolczesna Onkologia, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 165–170, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Feng Niu, Song Zhao, Chang-Yan Xu, Lin Chen, Long Ye, Gui-Bin Bi, Gang Tian, Ping Gong, and Tian-Hong Nie, “Identification and Functional Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Metastatic Osteosarcoma,” Asian Pacific Journal Of Cancer Prevention, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 10797–10801, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tielong Liu, Weiwei Zhou, Bing Cai, Jianjun Chu, Guodong Shi, Honglin Teng, Jian Xu, Jianru Xiao, and Yan Wang, “IRX2-mediated upregulation of MMP-9 and VEGF in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 4346–4351, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hui Li, Kun Zhang, Li-Hong Liu, Yurong Ouyang, Hong-Bin Guo, Hanchong Zhang, Jie Bu, and Tao Xiao, “MicroRNA screening identifies circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for osteosarcoma,” Oncology Letters, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1662–1668, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhishuang Li, Ming Jia, Xiaojuan Wu, Jingjing Cui, Aifeng Pan, and Li Li, “Overexpression of Trps1 contributes to tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis of human osteosarcoma,” Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alireza Mirghasemi, Afshin Taheriazam, Seyyed Hasan Karbasy, Ali Torkaman, Mohammadreza Shakeri, Emad Yahaghi, and Aram Mokarizadeh, “Down-regulation of miR-133a and miR-539 are associated with unfavorable prognosis in patients suffering from osteosarcoma,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Seyyed Hasan Karbasy, Afshin Taheriazam, Alireza Mirghasemi, Farnoush Sedaghati, Mohammadreza Shakeri, Emad Yahaghi, and Reza Bahador, “Upregulation of miR-300 and downregulation of miR-125b act as potential predictor biomarkers in progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis of osteosarcoma,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Seyad Alireza Bassampour, Reza Abdi, Reza Bahador, Mohammadreza Shakeri, Ali Torkaman, Emad Yahaghi, and Afshin Taheriazam, “Downregulation of miR-133b/miR-503 acts as efficient prognostic and diagnostic factors in patients with osteosarcoma and these predictor biomarkers are correlated with overall survival,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Gebhard, C. Gabriel, and I. Walter, “Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Spheroid Cell Cultures,” Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marcella Laschi, Giulia Bernardini, Michela Geminiani, Lorenzo Ghezzi, Loredana Amato, Daniela Braconi, Lia Millucci, Bruno Frediani, Adriano Spreafico, Alessandro Franchi, Domenico Campanacci, Rodolfo Capanna, and Annalisa Santucci, “Establishment of Four New Human Primary Cell Cultures from Chemo-Naïve Italian Osteosarcoma Patients,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 230, no. 11, pp. 2718–2727, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wang, Zheng, Zhang, Yang, and Zhao, “Wnt1-induced MAFK expression promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 7315–7325, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yanhong Zhou, Zhaohui Hu, Ningning Li, and Renjie Jiang, “Interleukin-32 stimulates osteosarcoma cell invasion and motility via AKT pathway-mediated MMP-13 expression,” International Journal Of Molecular Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1729–1733, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haibin Zeng, Zhong Zhang, Xiaoming Dai, Yongzhong Chen, Jianhua Ye, and Zhixin Jin, “Increased Expression of microRNA-199b-5p Associates with Poor Prognosis Through Promoting Cell Proliferation, Invasion and Migration Abilities of Human Osteosarcoma,” Pathology & Oncology Research, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Baobiao Zhuo, Yuan Li, Zhengwei Li, Haihui Qin, Qingzeng Sun, Fengfei Zhang, Yang Shen, Yingchun Shi, and Rong Wang, “PI3K/Akt signaling mediated Hexokinase-2 expression inhibits cell apoptosis and promotes tumor growth in pediatric osteosarcoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Heping Chang, Tianhua Dong, Xiaoting Ma, Tao Zhang, Zhaoyu Chen, Zongyou Yang, and Yingze Zhang, “Spondin 1 promotes metastatic progression through Fak and Src dependent pathway in human osteosarcoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Arantzazu Alfranca, Lucia Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Tornin, Ander Abarrategi, Teresa Amaral, Enrique de Alava, Pablo Menendez, Javier Garcia-Castro, and Rene Rodriguez, “Bone microenvironment signals in osteosarcoma development,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yun-Rong Zhu, Han Min, Jian-Feng Fang, Feng Zhou, Xiong-Wei Deng, and Yun-Qing Zhang, “Activity of the novel dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 against osteosarcoma,” Cancer Biology & Therapy, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 602–609, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gabriela Silva, and Abdelilah Aboussekhra, “ p16 INK4A inhibits the pro-metastatic potentials of osteosarcoma cells through targeting the ERK pathway and TGF-β1 ,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Nerea Bilbao-Aldaiturriaga, Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Maria Pombar-Gomez, Marta Zalacain-Diez, Ana Patiño-Garcia, Elixabet Lopez-Lopez, and Africa Garcia-Orad, “Polymorphisms in miRNA processing genes and their role in osteosarcoma risk,” Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fu-Xiang Yu, Wei-Jian Hu, Bin He, Yi-Hu Zheng, Qi-Yu Zhang, and Lin Chen, “Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jian-Hui Shen, Cheng-Bo Qu, Hai-Kun Chu, Ming-Yu Cui, Yu-Lan Wang, Yuan-Xin Sun, Yin-Dong Song, Gang Li, and Feng-Jun Shi, “ siRNA targeting TCTP suppresses osteosarcoma cell growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo ,” Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 5–14, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiaojun Ma, Wei Sun, Jiakang Shen, Yingqi Hua, Fei Yin, Mengxiong Sun, and Zhengdong Cai, “Gelsolin promotes cell growth and invasion through the upregulation of p-AKT and p-P38 pathway in osteosarcoma,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mohsen Mohammadi, Peyman Karimi Goudarzi, Omid Rahmani, Peyman Kaghazian, Emad Yahaghi, Afshin Taheriazam, and Koroosh Ahmadi, “Evaluation of gene expression level of CDC5L and MACC1 in poor prognosis and progression of osteosarcoma,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wen-Zhi Bi, Dian-Wei Li, Song Luo, Zhi-Gang Song, Yun Wang, Hua Jin, Yan Wang, Qing Li, Meng-Xia Li, Dong Wang, Bo Sun, Meng Xu, and Cheng-Xiong Xu, “A high risk of osteosarcoma in individuals who are homozygous for the p.D104N in endostatin,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, pp. 16392, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yongzheng Bao, Bin Chen, Qiang Wu, Konghe Hu, Xinhua Xi, Wengang Zhu, Xueren Zhong, and Jianting Chen, “Overexpression of miR-664 is associated with enhanced osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion ability via targeting SOX7,” Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Reza Bahador, Afshin Taheriazam, Alireza Mirghasemi, Ali Torkaman, Mohammadreza Shakeri, Emad Yahaghi, and Peyman Karimi Goudarzi, “Tissue expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a in children, adolescents, and young adults’ age groups and their association with prediction of poor prognosis in human osteosarcoma,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ali Akbar Esmailiejah, Afshin Taheriazam, Mohammad Reza Golbakhsh, Mohammad Jamshidi, Mohammadreza Shakeri, Emad Yahaghi, and Mehdi Moghtadaei, “Analysis of serum levels and tissue expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 as noninvasive biomarkers in osteosarcoma patients,” Tumor Biology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haibin Jiang, and Zhiyuan Zeng, “Dual mTORC1/2 inhibition by INK-128 results in antitumor activity in preclinical models of osteosarcoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jufeng Zhang, Daping Wang, Jianyi Xiong, Lei Chen, and Jianghong Huang, “MicroRNA-33a-5p suppresses growth of osteosarcoma cells and is downregulated in human osteosarcoma,” Oncology Letters, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 2135–2141, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qie Fan, Xinli Zhan, Zengming Xiao, and Chong Liu, “Phenethyl isothiocyanate enhances adriamycin-induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 5945–5950, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • L. Q. Zhang, S. L. Sun, W. Y. Li, Z. Feng, X. Y. Xu, Q. S. Zhuang, and J. Fang, “Decreased expression of tumor suppressive miR-874 and its clinical significance in human osteosarcoma,” Genetics And Molecular Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 18315–18324, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Guang-rong Ji, Nai-chun Yu, Xiang Xue, and Zong-guang Li, “PERK-mediated Autophagy in Osteosarcoma Cells Resists ER Stress-induced Cell Apoptosis,” International Journal Of Biological Sciences, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 803–812, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pierre J. Marie, Olivia Fromigué, and Dominique Modrowski, “Deregulation of osteoblast differentiation in primary bone cancers,” Bone Cancer, pp. 39–54, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Run Chang, Linlin Sun, and Thomas J. Webster, “Selective inhibition of MG-63 osteosarcoma cell proliferation induced by curcumin-loaded self-assembled arginine-rich-RGD nanospheres,” International Journal Of Nanomedicine, vol. 10, pp. 3351–3365, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yevgeniy Gindin, Yuan Jiang, Princy Francis, Robert L. Walker, Ogan D. Abaan, Yuelin J. Zhu, and Paul S. Meltzer, “miR-23a impairs bone differentiation in osteosarcoma via down-regulation of GJA1,” Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fan Shen, Stephen Osasan, Mingyong Zhang, Paulose J. Paul, Sujata Persad, and Consolato Sergi, “Osteogenic sarcoma: A 21st century review,” Anticancer Research, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 4391–4398, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pratistha Koirala, Michael E. Roth, Jonathan Gill, Jordan M. Chinai, Michelle R. Ewart, Sajida Piperdi, David S. Geller, Bang H. Hoang, Yekaterina V. Fatakhova, Maya Ghorpade, Xingxing Zang, and Richard Gorlick, “HHLA2, a member of the B7 family, is expressed in human osteosarcoma and is associated with metastases and worse survival,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 31154, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christos Adamopoulos, Antonios N. Gargalionis, Christina Piperi, and Athanasios G. Papavassiliou, “Recent Advances in Mechanobiology of Osteosarcoma,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pratistha Koirala, Michael E. Roth, Jonathan Gill, Sajida Piperdi, Jordan M. Chinai, David S. Geller, Bang H. Hoang, Amy Park, Michael A. Fremed, Xingxing Zang, and Richard Gorlick, “Immune infiltration and PD-L1 expression in the tumor microenvironment are prognostic in osteosarcoma,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, pp. 30093, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ya-Feng Liu, Xue-Hang Zhao, Rui Liu, Xue-Yang Li, and Zhen Song, “Development of docetaxel and alendronate-loaded chitosan-conjugated polylactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles: In vitro characterization in osteosarcoma cells,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1353–1360, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Jin, Zhao, Wang, and Liu, “Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is overexpressed in human osteosarcoma and promotes the proliferation of osteosarcoma U-2OS cells in vitro,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 15, no. 2, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yang Wang, Ruo-Feng Yin, and Jia-Song Teng, “Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-kappa B in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells,” Oncology Reports, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 3403–3408, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Efthimia K Basdra, Christos Adamopoulos, Antonios N Gargalionis, and Athanasios G Papavassiliou, “Deciphering signaling networks in osteosarcoma pathobiology,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 241, no. 12, pp. 1296–1305, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Da-wei Wang, Sheng-yuan Yu, Yang Cao, Lei Yang, Wei Liu, Xiao-qiang Er, Gui-jun Yao, and Zheng-gang Bi, “Identification of CD20, ECM, and ITGA as Biomarkers for Osteosarcoma by Integrating Transcriptome Analysis,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 22, pp. 2075–2085, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • F. Lamonaca, M. Vasile, and A. Nastro, “Measurement Method for the Objective and Early Detection of the Osteosarcoma Tumors,” Measurement, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Da-wei Wang, Sheng-yuan Yu, Yang Cao, Lei Yang, Wei Liu, E. Xiao-qiang, Gui-jun Yao, and Zheng-gang Bi, “A novel mechanism of mTORC1-mediated serine/glycine metabolism in osteosarcoma development,” Cellular Signalling, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kegan Zhu, Lei Liu, Junliang Zhang, Yanbo Wang, Hongwei Liang, Gentao Fan, Zhenhuan Jiang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, and Guangxin Zhou, “MiR-29b suppresses the proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells by targeting CDK6,” Protein & Cell, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Weilin Sang, Libo Zhu, Jinzhong Ma, Haiming Lu, and Cong Wang, “ Lentivirus-Mediated Knockdown of CTHRC1 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Migration ,” Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jihong Zhang, Xiaojuan Wang, Wuzhou Wu, Hongsheng Dang, and Bo Wang, “Expression of the Nrf2 and Keap1 proteins and their clinical significance in osteosarcoma,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lavinia Ferrante di Ruffano, and Tony Waldron, “On the importance of considering disease subtypes: Earliest detection of a parosteal osteosarcoma? Differential diagnosis of an osteosarcoma in an Anglo–Saxon female,” International Journal of Paleopathology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dimitrios Christoulas, Evangelos Terpos, and Ioannis Panagiotidis, “Inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand pathway for the management of aggressive osteosarcoma,” Annals of Translational Medicine, vol. 4, no. 24, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chia-Chieh Wu, Yi-Fu Huang, Chen-Pu Hsieh, Pin-Ju Chueh, and Yao-Li Chen, “Combined Use of Zoledronic Acid Augments Ursolic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells through Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Autophagy,” Molecules, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1640, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jinyi Feng, Ruilong Lan, Guanxiong Cai, Jinluan Lin, Xinwen Wang, Jianhua Lin, and Deping Han, “Verification of TREX1 as a promising indicator of judging the prognosis of osteosarcoma,” Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, vol. 11, no. 1, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Margherita Cortini, Annamaria Massa, Sofia Avnet, Gloria Bonuccelli, and Nicola Baldini, “Tumor-Activated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Osteosarcoma Stemness and Migratory Potential via IL-6 Secretion,” Plos One, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. e0166500, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cheng Li, Hao Zhang, Fang Ji, Ce Zhan, Hao Tang, Su-Chi Qiao, Wei-Dong Xu, and Zhi-Wei Wang, “MicroRNA-150 upregulation reduces osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating Ezrin,” Oncology Letters, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 3457–3462, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tao Zhang, Suoyuan Li, Jingjie Li, Fei Yin, Yingqi Hua, Zhouying Wang, Binhui Lin, Hongsheng Wang, Dongqing Zou, Zifei Zhou, Jing Xu, Chengqing Yi, and Zhengdong Cai, “Natural product pectolinarigenin inhibits osteosarcoma growth and metastasis via SHP-1-mediated STAT3 signaling inhibition,” Cell Death and Disease, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. e2421, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiao-Jun Qi, Zhao-Kun Zhong, Lei Liu, and En-Ning Zhang, “Nanomedicine-based combination of gambogic acid and retinoic acid chlorochalcone for enhanced anticancer efficacy in osteosarcoma,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, vol. 83, pp. 79–84, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Liang Hao, Qi Liao, Qiang Tang, Huan Deng, and Lu Chen, “Id-1 promotes osteosarcoma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jiliang He, Peng Zhang, Qinghu Li, Dongsheng Zhou, and Ping Liu, “Expression of high mobility group box 1 protein predicts a poorer prognosis for patients with osteosarcoma,” Oncology Letters, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 293–298, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sahitya K. Denduluri, Zhongliang Wang, Zhengjian Yan, Jing Wang, Qiang Wei, Maryam K. Mohammed, Rex C. Haydon, Hue H. Luu, and Tong-Chuan He, “Molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of human osteosarcoma,” Journal of Biomedical Research, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fei Duan, Shu-zhong Li, Wan-ping Zhu, Heng-jia Zhang, Sheng-jie Dai, Xue-hua Kang, and Yan-peng Tian, “WIF-1 or5-aza-2′-deoxycyticline demethylation suppresses tumor cirowth in a mouse model of osteosarcoma,” Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, vol. 20, no. 27, pp. 3984–3991, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yongzhong Cheng, Songping Zheng, Yan Teng, Yagmur Muftuoglu, Chanjuan Zhao, Song Chen, Xiang Gao, and Chao You, “Preparation of honokiol with biodegradable nanoparticles for treatment of osteosarcoma,” RSC Adv., vol. 6, no. 96, pp. 94278–94286, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ander Abarrategi, Juan Tornin, Lucia Martinez-Cruzado, Ashley Hamilton, Enrique Martinez-Campos, Juan P. Rodrigo, M. Victoria González, Nicola Baldini, Javier Garcia-Castro, and Rene Rodriguez, “Osteosarcoma: Cells-of-Origin, Cancer Stem Cells, and Targeted Therapies,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2016, pp. 1–13, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yun-Fang Zhen, Yun-Rong Zhu, Xiao-Dong Wang, Song-Tao Li, Xiao-Zhong Zhou, and Lun-Qing Zhu, “Identification of DNA-PKcs as a primary resistance factor of salinomycin in osteosarcoma cells,” Oncotarget, vol. 7, no. 48, pp. 79417–79427, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gisela Barros, Ángela María Trujillo, Lina Jaramillo, Agustín Darío Contreras, and Francy Helena Ortiz, “Malignant bone tumors in pediatrics. Five year experience in a pediatric referral center,” Revista Facultad de Medicina, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 403–407, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hua Jin, Song Luo, Yun Wang, Chang Liu, Zhenghao Piao, Meng Xu, Wei Guan, Qing Li, Hua Zou, Qun-You Tan, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Yan Wang, Dong Wang, and Cheng-Xiong Xu, “miR-135b Stimulates Osteosarcoma Recurrence and Lung Metastasis via Notch and Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling,” Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, vol. 8, pp. 111–122, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yan Cui, Chao Sun, Xuejian Gao, Xiaoming Yang, and Fuqiang Yang, “MicroRNA-302a suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion in osteosarcoma by targeting ADAM9,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 3565–3572, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • James Coventon, “A Review of the Mechanism of Action and Clinical Applications of Sorafenib in Advanced Osteosarcoma,” Journal of Bone Oncology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bo Dong, Guozhu Wang, Jie Yao, Puwei Yuan, Wulin Kang, Liqiang Zhi, and Xijing He, “Predicting novel genes and pathways associated with osteosarcoma by using bioinformatics analysis,” Gene, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xingang Li, Hongming Lu, Guilian Fan, Miao He, Yu Sun, Kai Xu, and Fengjun Shi, “A novel interplay between HOTAIR and DNA methylation in osteosarcoma cells indicates a new therapeutic strategy,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhi-Cai Zhang, Jian-Xiang Liu, Zeng-Wu Shao, Fei-Fei Pu, Bai-Chuan Wang, Qiang Wu, Yu-Kun Zhang, Xian-Lin Zeng, Xiao-Dong Guo, Shu-Hua Yang, and Tong-Chuan He, “In vitro effect of microRNA-107 targeting Dkk-1 by regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteosarcoma,” Medicine, vol. 96, no. 27, pp. e7245, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ke Liu, Yi Hou, Yunke Liu, and Jia Zheng, “LncRNA SNHG15 contributes to proliferation, invasion and autophagy in osteosarcoma cells by sponging miR-141,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 24, no. 1, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wenwu Gao, Junjie Zhou, and Bin Ji, “Evidence of Interleukin 21 Reduction in Osteosarcoma Patients Due to PD-1/PD-L1-Mediated Suppression of Follicular Helper T Cell Functionality,” DNA and Cell Biology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shu-Nan Wang, Song Luo, Chang Liu, Zhenghao Piao, Wenlong Gou, Yun Wang, Wei Guan, Qing Li, Hua Zou, Zhen-Zhou Yang, Dong Wang, Yan Wang, Meng Xu, Hua Jin, and Cheng-Xiong Xu, “miR-491 Inhibits Osteosarcoma Lung Metastasis and Chemoresistance by Targeting αB-crystallin,” Molecular Therapy, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thuy L. Phung, Bruce R. Smoller, Crystal Y. Pourciau, and Teresa S. Wrightpp. 1–622, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Thuy L. Phung, Teresa S. Wright, Crystal Y. Pourciau, Bruce R. Smoller, Thuy L. Phung, Teresa S. Wright, Crystal Y. Pourciau, and Bruce R. Smoller, “Muscle and Bone Proliferations,” Pediatric Dermatopathology, pp. 573–578, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xin Li, Ming-Lan Yan, and Qian Yu, “Identification of candidate drugs for the treatment of metastatic osteosarcoma through a subpathway analysis method,” Oncology Letters, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 4378–4384, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhan Wang, Kun Zhang, Yangjun Zhu, Yuxiong Shao, Dengfeng Wang, and Jun Zhang, “Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation and invasion of MG-63 osteosarcoma cells via downregulating Notch1,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1747–1752, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Wang, Weihai Liu, Hengtao Tang, Xianbiao Xie, Changye Zou, Yongqian Wang, Zhenhua Gao, and Junqiang Yin, “DRP5 is involved in cancer cell growth and predicts poor prognosis in human osteosarcoma,” Cancer Medicine, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zahia Benslimane-Ahmim, Jessica Pereira, Anna Lokajczyk, Blandine Dizier, Isabelle Galy-Fauroux, Anne-Marie Fischer, Dominique Heymann, and Catherine Boisson-Vidal, “Osteoprotegerin regulates cancer cell migration through SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and promotes tumour development by increasing neovascularization,” Cancer Letters, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tao Luo, Xiangli Yi, and Wei Si, “Identification of miRNA and genes involving in osteosarcoma by comprehensive analysis of microRNA and copy number variation data,” Oncology Letters, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 5427–5433, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qicai Li, Shirong Song, Guanzhen Ni, Yu Li, and Xiaohui Wang, “Serum miR-542-3p as a prognostic biomarker in osteosarcoma,” Cancer Biomarkers, pp. 1–6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zheng-Wei Li, Yun-Rong Zhu, Xiao-Zhong Zhou, Bao-Biao Zhuo, and Xiao-Dong Wang, “microRNA-135b expression silences Ppm1e to provoke AMPK activation and inhibit osteoblastoma cell proliferation,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 16, pp. 26424–26433, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sara Franceschi, Carlo Della Rocca, Chiara M. Mazzanti, Francesca Lessi, Veronica De Gregorio, Raffaella Carletti, Vincenzo Petrozza, Caterina Chiappetta, Antonio G. Naccarato, Claudio Di Cristofano, Massimiliano Mancini, Paolo Aretini, Chiara Puggioni, and Prospero Civita, “Whole-exome analysis in osteosarcoma to identify a personalized therapy,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 46, pp. 80416–80428, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yan Zhang, Rui Gu, Zhenggang Bi, Ying Liu, Wei Du, Yafeng Zhang, Peng Lu, Hongyue Zhang, Jilong Zou, Lixin Yan, Hanliang Sun, and Shuo Geng, “Tetrahydrocurcumin induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition and suppresses angiogenesis by targeting HIF-1α and autophagy in human osteosarcoma,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 53, pp. 91134–91149, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Keiji Sato, Yoshitaka Muramatsu, Katsuhisa Kawanami, Masataka Deie, Toshihiro Matsuo, Takuya Matsui, and Shigeyuki Sawada, “Inhibitory effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound sonication on the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells,” Oncology Letters, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 3071–3076, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lei Yang, Fei Xie, and Shuangqing Li, “Downregulation of homeobox B7 inhibits the tumorigenesis and progression of osteosarcoma,” Oncology Research, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1089–1095, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cheng Ju, Ruihao Zhou, Jun Sun, Feifei Zhang, Xiaofeng Tang, Kaddie Kwok Chen, Junliang Zhao, Xiaoyong Lan, Shifan Lin, Zhiping Zhang, and Xiao-Bin Lv, “LncRNA SNHG5 promotes the progression of osteosarcoma by sponging the miR-212-3p/SGK3 axis,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Stefano Gambera, Ander Abarrategi, Miguel A. Rodríguez-Milla, Francisca Mulero, Sofía T. Menéndez, René Rodriguez, Samuel Navarro, and Javier García-Castro, “Role of Activator Protein-1 Complex on the Phenotype of Human Osteosarcomas Generated from Mesenchymal Stem Cells,” Stem Cells, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chang-Te Hsu, Yi-Fu Huang, Chen-Pu Hsieh, Chia-Chieh Wu, and Tai-Shan Shen, “JNK Inactivation Induces Polyploidy and Drug-Resistance in Coronarin D-Treated Osteosarcoma Cells,” Molecules, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 2121, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shuai Huang, Zhenhua Lin, Jialin Su, Weidong Ji, Xingmo Liu, Jianan He, and Jiqin Zhang, “Disabled homolog 2 interactive protein functions as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma cells,” Oncology Letters, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 703–712, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chao Wang, Kewen Zheng, Wenbo Wang, Yanhui Zhang, Yang Li, and Chen Feng, “Indole-3-acetate induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in 143B and HOS osteosarcoma cells,” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1279–1285, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Caterina Chiappetta, Chiara Puggioni, Vincenzo Petrozza, Carlo Della Rocca, Raffaella Carletti, and Claudio Di Crisfofano, “The nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of a chromatin-modifyng and remodelling protein (KMT2C), in osteosarcoma,” Oncotarget, vol. 9, no. 55, pp. 30624–30634, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Quanxiang Liu, Yang Song, Xianliang Duan, Yuan Chang, and Jianping Guo, “MiR-92a Inhibits the Progress of Osteosarcoma Cells and Increases the Cisplatin Sensitivity by Targeting Notch1,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2018, pp. 1–8, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Amélie Poidvin, Jean-Claude Carel, Emmanuel Ecosse, Dominique Levy, Jean Michon, and Joël Coste, “Increased risk of bone tumors after growth hormone treatment in childhood: A population-based cohort study in France,” Cancer Medicine, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rui Jin, Xiao-Qian Zhou, Zhe Lei, Ying-Ying Jin, Yi-Lun Tang, and Hua-Juan Yang, “GPNMB silencing suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells by blocking the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway,” Oncology Reports, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 3034–3040, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chunming Jiang, Shenglin Ma, Runlei Hu, Xuepeng Wang, Maoqiang Li, Fei Tian, Zhenyu Bian, Wu Jiang, and Liulong Zhu, “Effect of CXCR4 on Apoptosis in Osteosarcoma Cells via the PI3K/Akt/NF-κβ Signaling Pathway,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2250–2260, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jun-Li Wang, Jia Liu, Ke-Gong Xie, Chang-Gong Lan, Lu Lu, and Yu-Jin Tang, “ Association between functional polymorphisms in IL-33 / ST2 pathway and risk of osteosarcoma ,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yuliang Hu, Qiuyong Yang, Long Wang, Shuo Wang, Fei Sun, Dong Xu, and Jian Jiang, “ Knockdown of the oncogene lncRNA NEAT1 restores the availability of miR-34c and improves the sensitivity to cisplatin in osteosarcoma ,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. BSR20180375, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alessandro Pirosa, Riccardo Gottardi, Peter G. Alexander, and Rocky S. Tuan, “Engineering in-vitro stem cell-based vascularized bone models for drug screening and predictive toxicology,” Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol. 9, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Litao Li, Long Yu, Dawei Li, Zhanpeng Luo, Xiaobo Luo, Suxi Gu, and Yuanzheng Ma, “Curcumin may serve an anticancer role in human osteosarcoma cell line U-2 OS by targeting ITPR1,” Oncology Letters, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 5593–5601, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiao Hui Liu, Lang Xia Liu, Xue Juan Gao, Qing Zhong Zeng, Wan Ting Liu, Jun Lei Lu, and Yun Fang Zhang, “YWHAZ Binds to TRIM21 but Is Not Involved in TRIM21-stimulated Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation,” Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 186–196, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tetsu Kawabata, Go Sakai, Kazuhiko Fujita, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Takanobu Otsuka, Osamu Kozawa, Haruhiko Tokuda, and Gen Kuroyanagi, “HSP70 inhibitor suppresses IGF-I-stimulated migration of osteoblasts through p44/p42 MAP Kinase,” Biomedicines, vol. 6, no. 4, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xianxiang Song, Lijun Tian, Yanqiu Quan, Dan Sun, and Linmei Zhang, “Elevated circulating macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 is a biological marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of osteosarcoma,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 4803–4809, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yu-sheng Li, Qing Liu, Jian Tian, Hong-bo He, and Wei Luo, “Angiogenesis process in osteosarcoma: an updated perspective of pathophysiology and therapeutics,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Okkeun Jung, and Sang Yeol Lee, “Synergistic anticancer effects of timosaponin AIII and ginsenosides in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells,” Journal of Ginseng Research, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yu Han, Xingyu Zhao, Yifu Sun, Yutong Sui, and Jianguo Liu, “Effects of FOSL1 silencing on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and migration through the ERK/AP-1 signaling pathway,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dumnoensun Pruksakorn, Jeerawan Klangjorhor, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Pimpisa Teeyakasem, Patsadakorn Sungngam, Parunya Chaiyawat, Areerak Phanphaisarn, Jongkolnee Settakorn, and Chantragan Srisomsap, “Oncogenic roles of serine–threonine kinase receptor-associated protein (STRAP) in osteosarcoma,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mariana Magalhães, Mauro Almeida, Carla Varela, Joana Jorge, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Rui Albuquerque Carvalho, Ana Cláudia Santos, Ana Figueiras, Elisiário Tavares-da-Silva, Fernanda M.F. Roleira, and Francisco Veiga, “miR-145-loaded micelleplexes as a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit proliferation and migration of osteosarcoma cells,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 28–42, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Idoia Martin-Guerrero, Nerea Bilbao-Aldaiturriaga, Angela Gutierrez-Camino, Borja Santos-Zorrozua, Vita Dolžan, Ana Patiño-Garcia, and Africa Garcia-Orad, “Variants in the 14q32 miRNA cluster are associated with osteosarcoma risk in the Spanish population,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Muhammad Aziz, Yazmin Hussin, Nurul Che Rahim, Noraini Nordin, Nurul Mohamad, Swee Yeap, Chean Yong, Mas Masarudin, Yoke Cheah, Nadiah Abu, Muhammad Akhtar, and Noorjahan Alitheen, “Curcumin Analog DK1 Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells In Vitro through Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathway,” Molecules, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 75, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giulia Bernardini, Michela Geminiani, Silvia Gambassi, Maurizio Orlandini, Elena Petricci, Barbara Marzocchi, Marcella Laschi, Maurizio Taddei, Fabrizio Manetti, and Annalisa Santucci, “Novel smoothened antagonists as anti-neoplastic agents for the treatment of osteosarcoma,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tao Lin, Yuefeng Zhang, Quanping Ma, Hongfei Zhang, Jiapeng Yan, and Changhong Gao, “MicroRNA-27a functions as an oncogene in human osteosarcoma by targeting CCNG1,” Oncology Letters, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1067–1071, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhitao Han, Guanghui Chen, Baoquan Xin, Tielong Liu, Guangjian Bai, and Ge Liu, “Research progress on lncRNA related to osteosarcoma,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 297–300, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wang, Nie, Zhao, Guo, and Ye, “Circular RNA circ-NT5C2 acts as a potential novel biomarker for prognosis of osteosarcoma,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 6239–6244, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hu, Dai, Shang, Zhao, and Hao, “High levels of Long non-coding RNA DICER1-AS1 are associated with poor clinical prognosis in PATIENTS with osteosarcoma,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 7640–7645, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jianping Guo, Zengxin Li, Quanxiang Liu, Haifeng Guo, Changshuang Bai, and Fajia Wang, “miR-222-3p promotes osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion through targeting TIMP3,” OncoTargets and Therapy, vol. 11, pp. 8643–8653, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sung-Jin Park, Bong-Soo Park, Su-Bin Yu, Hae-Mi Kang, Hye-Jin Kim, and In-Ryoung Kim, “ Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition by α -Mangostin in MG-63 Cell Lines ,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2018, pp. 1–10, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zheng Jin, Shanshan Liu, Pei Zhu, Mengyan Tang, Yuanxin Wang, Yuan Tian, Dong Li, Xun Zhu, Dongmei Yan, and Zhenhua Zhu, “Cross-Species Gene Expression Analysis Reveals Gene Modules Implicated in Human Osteosarcoma,” Frontiers in Genetics, vol. 10, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jianhua Lu, Weikai Chen, Hao Liu, Huilin Yang, and Tao Liu, “Transcription factor CEBPB inhibits the proliferation of osteosarcoma by regulating downstream target gene CLEC5A,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Caterina Chiappetta, Raffaella Carletti, Carlo Della Rocca, and Claudio Di Cristofano, “Kmt2c Modulates Migration And Invasion Processes In Osteosarcoma Cell Lines,” Pathology - Research and Practice, pp. 152534, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yiping Zhang, Xufeng Zhou, Changchang Yin, Yahua Wu, and Lili Wang, “Overexpression of ERβ inhibits the proliferation through regulating TNG-β signaling pathway in Osteosarcoma,” Pathology - Research and Practice, pp. 152568, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sudipta Sen, Veerandra Koyyalamudi, Darwin D. Smith, Ricardo A. Weis, Michael Molloy, Allyson L. Spence, Aaron J. Kaye, Carmen C. Labrie-Brown, O. Morgan Hall, Elyse M. Cornett, and Alan David Kaye, “The Role of Regional Anesthesia in the Propagation of Cancer: A Comprehensive Review,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Silvia Marino, Daniëlle de Ridder, Ryan T. Bishop, Nathalie Renema, Marco Ponzetti, Antonia Sophocleous, Mattia Capulli, Abdullah Aljeffery, Giovana Carrasco, Marianela Dalghi Gens, Asim Khogeer, Stuart H. Ralston, Jürg Gertsch, Francois Lamoureux, Dominique Heymann, Nadia Rucci, and Aymen I. Idris, “Paradoxical effects of JZL184, an inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase, on bone remodelling in healthy and cancer-bearing mice,” EBioMedicine, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Benjamin Zanghellini, Tilman A. Grünewald, Manfred Burghammer, Harald Rennhofer, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger, Andreas Leithner, and Helga C. Lichtenegger, “High-resolution large-area imaging of nanoscale structure and mineralization of a sclerosing osteosarcoma in human bone,” Journal of Structural Biology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alan Chramiec, and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, “Tissue engineered models of healthy and malignant human bone marrow,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, and Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana, “Berberine and musculoskeletal disorders: the therapeutic potential and underlying molecular mechanisms,” Phytomedicine, pp. 152892, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Consolato Sergi, Fan Shen, and Song-Mei Liu, “Insulin/IGF-1R, SIRT1, and FOXOs Pathways—An Intriguing Interaction Platform for Bone and Osteosarcoma,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 10, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xue Chen, Lili Zhong, Xijing Li, Wenping Liu, Yinlong Zhao, and Junfeng Li, “Down-regulation of microRNA-31-5p inhibits proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by enhancing AXIN1,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhang, Donghui Yang, Weiwei Wang, Liu, and Aijun Guo, “Let-7b acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma via targeting IGF1R,” Oncology Letters, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 1646–1654, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alain S. Abi-Ghanem, Karl Asmar, Fouad Boulos, and Samar Muwakkit, “Osteoma-like melorheostosis: a rare type of skeletal dysplasia depicted on FDG PET/CT,” Skeletal Radiology, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Carina Marques, “Tumors of Bone,” Ortner's Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains, pp. 639–717, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar