Figure 4: Cell invasion assay. (a) Pictures taken under microscope after staining (10x magnifications) to visualize the invasive cells across the polycarbonate membrane. (b) A summary of the invasion assay results after staining and extracting the cells outside the membrane. The highly invasive HT-1080 cell lines served as a positive control, and the noninvasive NIH-3T3 (3T3) cells served as a negative control. There is no statistically significant difference between the transformed clones with different β-catenin level and the parental MSC-TS, all values are greater than 0.05.