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Micro-CT Evaluation of Four Root Canal Obturation Techniques
Purpose. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the quality of four root canal obturation techniques using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Materials and Methods. A total of 36 mandibular first premolars with mostly round canals were decoronated, then instrumented up to a size F3 rotary file, and dressed with an epoxy resin-based sealer. Subsequently, they were divided into 4 different groups () based on the method of obturation: lateral condensation using 0.02 tapered master cone (LC2), lateral condensation using 0.04 tapered master cone (LC4), matched single-cone technique (MS), and matched single cone-mediated ultrasonic activation (MSUA). All the teeth were scanned using micro-CT (resolution of 19 μm), and the percentage volume of voids was calculated. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test were used to analyze the data (). Results. The total percentage volume of voids was significantly lower in the MSUA group compared to all other groups (). The total percentage volume of voids was significantly lower in the MS group compared to the LC4 () and LC2 () groups. However, there was no significant difference between the LC2 and LC4 groups (). Conclusions. MSUA, significantly, showed the least root canal filling voids amongst all the obturation techniques studied. MSUA can be considered an effective method for the filling of the round root canals. In general, lateral condensation using either 0.02 or 0.04 tapered master cones had significantly the highest volume percentage of voids amongst the experimental groups.
Volumetric Evaluation of Pharyngeal Airway after Functional Therapy
The aim of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) effects of Twin-block functional appliance (TB) on the pharyngeal airway by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 30 patients (14 females, 16 males; mean age and years, respectively) with skeletal Class II malocclusion were included in this study and were treated with TB. On the pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) CBCT scans, volumetric changes in the pharyngeal airway; SNA, SNB, and ANB angles; and bilateral effective mandibular (Co-Gn) and midfacial length (Co-A) were also evaluated. The statistical differences were accessed by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the scores of male and female subjects. In this study, an increase was observed in SNB and Co-Gn () while a decrease in ANB and SNA ( and , respectively) was found. However, increase in midfacial length was not statistically significant (). In the evaluation of volumetric pharyngeal airway changes, statistically significant increases () in the upper and lower division and total airway volume were determined. Gender differences were insignificant for all measurements (). Volumetric changes in the pharyngeal airway after functional therapy can be successfully evaluated by CBCT images. The anterior repositioning of the mandible by TB increases the mandibular length and pharyngeal airway volume in patients with retrognathic mandible.
Establishment and Verification of Multiaxis Fatigue Life Prediction Model
A fatigue life prediction model with multiaxis load is proposed. The model introduces a new effective cyclic parameter, equivalent stress on the critical surface, to modify the Suntech model. The new damage parameters are not related to empirical constants, hence more applicable for practical application in engineering. The multiaxis fatigue test was carried out with high-strength aluminum alloy 7075-T651, and the multiaxis fatigue life prediction of the test piece was conducted with the finite element software. The experiment result shows that the model proposed is effective for predicting the fatigue life under multiaxis load.
A Cost-Effective Method for Preparing Robust and Conductive Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on Asphalt
The wide application of superhydrophobic materials is mainly hindered by the poor mechanical robustness and complicated preparation method. To overcome these problems, we tried to make a combination of hierarchical and self-similar structure by the means of a simple spraying method. By adding nanofiller (carbon nanotube) and microfiller (graphite powder and expanded graphite), the hierarchical structure was constructed. By further doping the fillers in the commercial asphalt uniformly, the self-similar structure was prepared. Based on the aforementioned work, the as-prepared sample could withstand the sandpaper abrasion for 12.00 m under 4.90 kPa. Moreover, this superhydrophobic coating demonstrated good conductivity, superior self-cleaning property, and excellent corrosion resistance. The integration of conductivity with the superhydrophobicity might open new avenues for ground grid applications.
High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of a Cu-Bearing 17Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel
The isothermal oxidation behavior of 17Cr-0.85Si-0.5Nb-1.2Cu ferritic stainless steel in air was studied from 850°C to 1050°C by analyzing its weight gain after oxidation. The kinetic curves were plotted using the oxidation weight-gain data, and the structure, surface morphology, and element distribution of the oxide films were analyzed by XRD, SEM, and EDS. The results showed that the oxidation kinetics curves at 850°C and 950°C followed a parabolic law, and a continuous and dense oxide film composed of Cr2O3 and MnCr2O4, FeCr2O4, and Cu-Cr rich spinel was formed, which reveals that the steel displayed good oxidation resistance. When the temperature was increased to 1050°C, the oxidation kinetics curves gradually changed from parabolic to linear after 40 h exposure, which indicated that the oxidation resistance significantly worsened. A lower oxidation resistance was observed at 1050°C due to the formation of a large amount of Fe2O3 on the surface and the volatilization of the inner Cr2O3 layer.
Region-Based Segmentation and Wiener Pilot-Based Novel Amoeba Denoising Scheme for CT Imaging
Computed tomography (CT) is one of the most common and beneficial medical imaging schemes, but the associated high radiation dose injurious to the patient is always a concern. Therefore, postprocessing-based enhancement of a CT reconstructed image acquired using a reduced dose is an active research area. Amoeba- (or spatially variant kernel-) based filtering is a strong candidate scheme for postprocessing of the CT image, which adapts its shape according to the image contents. In the reported research work, the amoeba filtering is customized for postprocessing of CT images acquired at a reduced X-ray dose. The proposed scheme modifies both the pilot image formation and amoeba shaping mechanism of the conventional amoeba implementation. The proposed scheme uses a Wiener filter-based pilot image, while region-based segmentation is used for amoeba shaping instead of the conventional amoeba distance-based approach. The merits of the proposed scheme include being more suitable for CT images because of the similar region-based and symmetric nature of the human body anatomy, image smoothing without compromising on the edge details, and being adaptive in nature and more robust to noise. The performance of the proposed amoeba scheme is compared to the traditional amoeba kernel in the image denoising application for CT images using filtered back projection (FBP) on sparse-view projections. The scheme is supported by computer simulations using fan-beam projections of clinically reconstructed and simulated head CT phantoms. The scheme is tested using multiple image quality matrices, in the presence of additive projection noise. The scheme implementation significantly improves the image quality visually and statistically, providing better contrast and image smoothing without compromising on edge details. Promising results indicate the efficacy of the proposed scheme.