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Reactions of Subcutaneous Connective Tissue to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Biodentine®, and a Newly Developed BioACTIVE Base/Liner

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Scanning publishes international and interdisciplinary research focused on scanning electron, scanning probe, and scanning optical microscopies, and their advancement and applications.

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Research Article

Adhesion of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles to Dental Materials under Oral Conditions

Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAP) are receiving considerable attention for dental applications, and their adhesion to enamel is well established. However, there are no reports concerning the effects of HAP on other dental materials, and most of the studies in this field are based on in vitro designs, neglecting the salivary pellicle-apatite interactions. Thus, this in situ pilot study aims to evaluate the effects of three hydroxyapatite-based solutions and their interactions with different dental material surfaces under oral conditions. Hence, two volunteers carried intraoral splints with mounted samples from enamel and from three dental materials: titanium, ceramics, and polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Three HAP watery solutions (5%) were prepared with different shapes and sizes of nano-HAP (HAP I, HAP II, HAP III). After 3 min of pellicle formation, 10 ml rinse was performed during 30 sec. Rinsing with water served as control. Samples were accessed immediately after rinsing, 30 min and 2 h after rinsing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the particles, and SEM evaluated the pellicle-HAP interactions. SEM and TEM results showed a high variation in the size range of the particles applied. A heterogeneous HAP layer was present after 2 h on enamel, titanium, ceramics, and PMMA surfaces under oral conditions. Bridge-like structures were visible between the nano-HAP and the pellicle formed on enamel, titanium, and PMMA surfaces. In conclusion, nano-HAP can adhere not only to enamel but also to artificial dental surfaces under oral conditions. The experiment showed that the acquired pellicle act as a bridge between the nano-HAP and the materials’ surface.

Research Article

Evaluation of the Bond Strengths between Dental Porcelain and Cobalt-Chromium Metal Frameworks Manufactured with Different Techniques after the Thermal Aging Process

Purpose. The present study is aimed at examining the bond strength of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) metal frameworks, prepared through different techniques, to a single type of low-temperature porcelain system after the thermal aging process. Methods. A hundred and twenty Co-Cr alloy framework specimens were prepared using conventional casting, CAD/CAM, and two commercially different laser sintering devices, and dental porcelain was applied to the specimens. A single type of dental porcelain (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Tokyo, Japan) was applied to the specimens. After the subgroups were determined, half of the specimens were subjected to a thermal aging process. Bond strength of specimens was evaluated using a 3-point bending test. The surfaces of the fractured specimens were evaluated using a stereomicroscope. The metal-porcelain bonding area of samples randomly selected from 8 groups has been examined with SEM under ×1000 magnifications. Normality distribution of obtained data was examined using by a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The obtained data of the present study was statistically analyzed with a statistical package program (SPSS for Windows 22.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Results. There was a statistically significant difference between CAD/CAM and the other three methods, and the bonding value of the CAD/CAM group was the highest among the groups. Besides, the bond strength between dental porcelain and 4 differently produced metal frameworks was high enough to surpass the acceptable threshold (>25 MPa) according to the ISO 9693. There was no statistically significant difference between thermal aging applied and nonapplied groups. Conclusions. Based on this study, it could be shown that the metal-ceramic bond strength is dependent on the manufacturing method used, but it is independent of the thermal aging application. It was found that the bond strength values of all samples with and without thermal aging application exceeded the minimum acceptable value of 25 MPa recommended by the ISO 9693.

Research Article

Investigation on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of the Hypoeutectic Al-10Si-0.8Fe-Er Alloy

In this paper, the effect of Er addition (0.2, 0.5, 0.65, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 wt. %) on the microstructure evolution and tensile properties of as-cast hypereutectic Al-10Si-0.8Fe alloy was investigated. The phases and their morphologies in these alloys were identified by XRD and SEM equipped with EDX with the help of metallographic analysis techniques; the length of the secondary phase (LSP) and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) of α-Al grain were quantified. The results indicated that the second phases (primary Si, eutectic Si, and iron-rich phases) and α-Al grain were significantly refined when the addition of Er increased from 0 to 0.8 wt. %. The mean LSP and SADS values were decreased to a minimum value when the Er addition reached 0.8 wt. %. However, the second phases and α-Al grain became coarser when the level of Er increased more than 0.8 wt. %. The analysis of XRD shows that Er mainly exists in the form of Er2Si compound. The microstructure modification also has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and elongation (EL) increase from 52.86 MPa, 163.84 MPa, and 3.45% to 71.01 MPa, 163.84 MPa, and 5.65%, respectively. From the fracture surface, the promotions of mechanical properties are due to the dispersion and pinning reinforcement caused by the Er2Si phase.

Research Article

Correlation between Fracture Morphology and Microstructural Evolution during Long-Term Aging of EK61 Superalloy

Microstructural evolutions of EK61 superalloy during long-term aging until 1000 h at 700°C and 750°C, respectively, are studied by combination of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Impact fracture morphologies after aging for different time are observed by the SEM. The microstructure is found to be relatively stable during aging at 700°C, and the fracture morphologies are characterized by transgranular fracture. At 750°C, the coarsening of γ phase leads the reduction of the quantity of dimples, the chainization of carbides on grain boundaries leads to intergranular fracture, and the netting of η phases within grains leads to the formation of lamellar cleavage steps. It is obvious that the destabilization of precipitated phases affects fracture morphology significantly. The relationship between fracture morphology and the microstructure promotes the evaluation of service reliability of EK61 superalloy.

Research Article

Label-Free Identification of Early Stages of Breast Ductal Carcinoma via Multiphoton Microscopy

Breast cancer can be cured by early diagnosis. Appropriate and effective clinical treatment benefits from accurate pathological diagnosis. However, due to the lack of effective screening and diagnostic imaging methods, early stages of breast cancer often progress to malignant breast cancer. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) via two-photon excited fluorescence combined with second-harmonic generation was used for identifying the early stages of breast ductal carcinoma. The results showed differences in both cytological features and collagen distribution among normal breast tissue, atypical ductal hyperplasia, low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ, and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion. Furthermore, three features extracted from the MPM images were used to describe differences in cytological features, collagen density, and basement membrane circumference in the early stages of breast ductal carcinoma. They revealed that MPM has the ability to identify early stages of breast ductal carcinoma label-free, which would contribute to the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This study may provide the groundwork for the further application of MPM in the clinic.

Research Article

Applying Fast Scanning Method Coupled with Digital Image Processing Technology as Standard Acquisition Mode for Scanning Electron Microscopy

This study proposes an efficient and fast method of scanning (e.g., television (TV) scan) coupled with digital image processing technology to replace the conventional slow-scan mode as a standard model of acquisition for general-purpose scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images obtained using the proposed method had the same quality in terms of sharpness and noise as slow-scan images, and it was able to suppress the adverse effects of charging in a full-vacuum condition, which is a challenging problem in this area. Two problems needed to be solved in designing the proposed method. One was suitable compensation in image quality using the inverse filter based on characteristics of the frequency of a TV-scan image, and the other to devise an accurate technique of image integration (noise suppression), the position alignment of which is robust against noise. This involved using the image montage technique and estimating the number of images needed for the integration. The final result of our TV-scan mode was compared with the slow-scan image as well as the conventional TV-scan image.

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CiteScore1.280
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