The Effect of Different Final Irrigation Regimens on the Dentinal Tubule Penetration of Three Different Root Canal Sealers: A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Study In VitroRead the full article
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Study of the Peak to Background (P/B) Method Behavior as a Function of Take-Off Angle, Tilt Angle, Particle Size, and Beam Energy
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate the behavior of the peak to background ratio (P/B) of particles on a substrate as a function of different variables such as take-off angle, tilt angle, particle size, and beam energy. The results showed that the P/B highly depends on the beam energy, the size of particles, and the composition of the substrates. Results showed that the rate of intensity reduction of the peak is less than the background for a high tilt angle (60 degrees), and thereby, the P/B increases at a high tilt angle. It was shown that by increasing the take-off angle, the P/B initially reduces and then reaches a plateau. Results showed that the P/B highly depends on the size of particles. Analyses showed that by moving the electron beam from the center to the side of the particle, the P/B increases. Finally, the spherical particles have higher sensitivity of the P/B to the beam position than the cubical particles.
Progress in Catalytic Pyrolysis of Oil Shale
This paper briefly describes the research status of oil shale pyrolysis technology and the main factors affecting oil shale pyrolysis, with emphasis on four kinds of commonly used catalysts: The effects of natural minerals, metal compounds, molecular sixes, and supported catalysts on the pyrolysis of oil shale were discussed. The changes of the pyrolysis mechanism and product composition of oil shale with the addition of different catalysts were discussed. Finally, the development direction of preparation of new catalysts was discussed, in order to provide a prospect for the development and utilization of unconventional and strategic alternative energy resources around the world.
Effect of Cu2+ on Corrosion Behavior of A106B Carbon Steel and 304L Stainless Steels in Seawater
The corrosion behaviors of A106B carbon steel and 304L stainless steel (SS) in seawater with different Cu2+ concentrations were studied by the immersion test and the potentiodynamic polarization test. The results showed that with the increasing Cu2+ concentration, the mass lot rates of A106B and 304L SS all increased in the immersion test, and compared with A106B, the mass lot rates of 304L SS were all smaller. In the potentiodynamic polarization test, following the concentration of Cu2+ increased, the corrosion potential of A106B firstly shifted negatively; then, when Cu2+ increased to 100 ppm, the polarization curve moved to the upper right direction; namely, both the corrosion potential and corrosion electrical density increased. The corrosion potential of 304L SS increased with the increasing Cu2+, and the passive region was reduced; the pitting sensitivity improved.
Fracture Analysis and Fatigue Strength Calculation of Anchor Bolt Used in Circulating Water Pump in Nuclear Power Plant
A circulating water pump is a key equipment of cooling systems in nuclear power plants. Several anchor bolts were broken at the inlet rings of the same type of pumps. The bolts were turned by a special material for seawater corrosion protection. There were obvious turning tool marks at the root of the thread, which was considered as the source of the crack. The fatigue crack extended to the depth of the bolt, causing obvious radiation stripes on the fracture surface, which was a typical fatigue fracture. Obvious overtightening characteristics were found at the head of the broken bolt. Fracture and energy spectrum analysis showed that the bolt was not corroded. The axial vibration of the pump was measured. The static tensile stress along the bolt axis caused by the preload, the axial tensile stress caused by the axial vibration, and the torsional stress were calculated, respectively. According to the fatigue strength theory, the composite safety factor of the bolt fatigue strength was 1.37 when overtightening at 1.2 times the design torque, which was less than the allowable safety factor of 1.5-1.8, so the bolt was not safe, which further verified the conclusion of fracture analysis. The reason for the low safety factor was caused by the overtightening force. The improvement method was to control the bolt preload or increasing the bolt diameter.
Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Properties of a 3D Flower-Like TiO2 Nanostructure Photocatalyst
Flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures are successfully synthesized using a hybrid sol-gel and a simple hydrothermal method. The sample was characterized using various techniques to study their physicochemical properties and was tested as a photocatalyst for methyl orange degradation and as an antibacterial material. Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern show that the phase structure of the synthesized TiO2 is anatase with 80-100 nm in diameter and 150–200 nm in length of flower-like nanostructures as proved by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure found that only titanium and oxygen elements are present in the sample. The anatase phase was confirmed further by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern analysis. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) result shows that the sample had a large surface area (108.24 m2/g) and large band gap energy (3.26 eV) due to their nanosize. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the formation of Ti4+ and Ti3+ species which could prevent the recombination of the photogenerated electron, thus increased the electron transportation and photocatalytic activity of flower-like anatase TiO2 nanostructure to degrade the methyl orange (83.03%) in a short time (60 minutes). These properties also support the good performance of flower-like titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure as an antibacterial material which is comparable with penicillin which is inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus.
Effect of the Concentration of SrAl2O4: Eu2+and Dy3+ (SAO) on Characteristics and Properties of Environment-Friendly Long-Persistent Luminescence Composites from Polylactic Acid and SAO
We report luminous polylactic acid (PLA) composite prepared via a solvent casting method using different amounts of phosphor strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4: Eu2+ and Dy3+) (SAO). The reason for doing this is that the changes of fluorescence and mechanical properties in the composites with different SAO contents can be directly evaluated. The SAO particles should have a variety of excellent characteristics in the PLA matrix, among which dispersibility and compatibility are particularly important; so, they can be modified by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) to achieve the target characteristics. The results showed that the fluorescence and mechanical properties were affected by SAO addition. The mechanical properties significantly improved with 5 wt% SAO; further, addition had no impact. And the emission band of fluorescence and phosphorescence is just at the peak of 524 nm. The composites with 15 wt% SAO have the best fluorescence properties. The fluorescence decreased with further doping. Fluorescence decay curves with various amounts of SAO particles show a similar tendency as pure SAO particles; the speed of decrease in afterglow intensity was higher for the first 30 min. In addition, the detailed morphological scanning and study by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the particles had good adhesion to the matrix. In conclusion, the concentration of SAO into the PLA matrix impacts the fluorescence and mechanical properties of a SAO/PLA composite material.