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Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 459284, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/459284
Review Article

Weight Gain, Schizophrenia and Antipsychotics: New Findings from Animal Model and Pharmacogenomic Studies

1Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Room 30, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 1R8
2Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Psichiatria, Laboratorio di Psichiatria Molecolare, University of Napoli “Federico II”, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Napoli, Italy

Received 3 April 2010; Revised 3 August 2010; Accepted 24 October 2010

Academic Editor: Nakao Iwata

Copyright © 2011 Fabio Panariello et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Excess body weight is one of the most common physical health problems among patients with schizophrenia that increases the risk for many medical problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, osteoarthritis, and hypertension, and accounts in part for 20% shorter life expectancy than in general population. Among patients with severe mental illness, obesity can be attributed to an unhealthy lifestyle, personal genetic profile, as well as the effects of psychotropic medications, above all antipsychotic drugs. Novel “atypical” antipsychotic drugs represent a substantial improvement on older “typical” drugs. However, clinical experience has shown that some, but not all, of these drugs can induce substantial weight gain. Animal models of antipsychotic-related weight gain and animal transgenic models of knockout or overexpressed genes of antipsychotic receptors have been largely evaluated by scientific community for changes in obesity-related gene expression or phenotypes. Moreover, pharmacogenomic approaches have allowed to detect more than 300 possible candidate genes for antipsychotics-induced body weight gain. In this paper, we summarize current thinking on: (1) the role of polymorphisms in several candidate genes, (2) the possible roles of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in this adverse drug reaction, and (3) the state of development of animal models in this matter. We also outline major areas for future research.