Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Volume 2011, Article ID 542896, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/542896
Research Article

Abnormal Behaviors and Microstructural Changes in White Matter of Juvenile Mice Repeatedly Exposed to Amphetamine

1Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 1135 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
2Department of Computer Science, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901-4328, USA

Received 1 February 2011; Revised 24 March 2011; Accepted 2 May 2011

Academic Editor: George Bartzokis

Copyright © 2011 Hong-Ju Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Elliott and T. J. Beveridge, “Psychostimulants and monoamine transporters: upsetting the balance,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 94–100, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. K. Madras, G. M. Miller, and A. J. Fischman, “The dopamine transporter and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1397–1409, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. United Nations, “The world drug problems: a status report,” in World Drug Report, Vol.1: Analysis, pp. 25–26, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, Austria, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Berman, J. O'Neill, S. Fears, G. Bartzokis, and E. D. London, “Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1141, pp. 195–220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. M. Berman, R. T. Kuczenski, J. T. McCracken, and E. D. London, “Potential adverse effects of amphetamine treatment on brain and behavior: a review,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 123–142, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. W. Kalivas and J. Stewart, “Dopamine transmission in the initiation and expression of drug- and stress-induced sensitization of motor activity,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 223–244, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Karler, K. T. Finnegan, and L. D. Calder, “Blockade of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and amphetamine by inhibitors of protein synthesis,” Brain Research, vol. 603, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. R. Nelson and G. Ellison, “Enhanced stereotypies after repeated injections but not continuous amphetamines,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1081–1084, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. E. Robinson and J. B. Becker, “Enduring changes in brain and behavior produced by chronic amphetamine administration: a review and evaluation of animal models of amphetamine psychosis,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 157–198, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. M. Thompson, K. M. Hayashi, S. L. Simon et al., “Structural abnormalities in the brains of human subjects who use methamphetamine,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 6028–6036, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. A. Awad, P. C. Johnson, R. F. Spetzler, and J. A. Hodak, “Incidental subcortical lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging in the elderly: II. Postmortem pathological correlations,” Stroke, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1090–1097, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. C. Bae, I. K. Lyoo, Y. H. Sung et al., “Increased white matter hyperintensities in male methamphetamine abusers,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Chung, I. K. Lyoo, S. J. Kim et al., “Decreased frontal white-matter integrity in abstinent methamphetamine abusers,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 765–775, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Salo, T. E. Nordahl, M. H. Buonocore et al., “Cognitive control and white matter callosal microstructure in methamphetamine-dependent subjects: a diffusion tensor imaging study,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 122–128, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. S. Kim, Y. T. Kim, H. J. Song et al., “Reduced corpus callosum white matter microstructural integrity revealed by diffusion tensor eigenvalues in abstinent methamphetamine addicts,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 209–213, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. C. Tobias, J. O'Neill, M. Hudkins, G. Bartzokis, A. C. Dean, and E. D. London, “White-matter abnormalities in brain during early abstinence from methamphetamine abuse,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. C. Wiggins, “Myelin development and nutritional insufficiency,” Brain Research, vol. 257, no. 2, pp. 151–175, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. E. Lancaster, B. K. Mayur, P. N. Patsalos, T. Samorajski, and R. C. Wiggins, “The synthesis of myelin and brain subcellular membrane proteins in the offspring of rats fed ethanol during pregnancy,” Brain Research, vol. 235, no. 1, pp. 105–113, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. P. Riley, S. N. Mattson, E. R. Sowell, T. L. Jernigan, D. F. Sobel, and K. L. Jones, “Abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children prenatally exposed to alcohol,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1198–1202, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. T. Zoeller, O. V. Butnariu, D. L. Fletcher, and E. P. Riley, “Limited postnatal ethanol exposure permanently alters the expression of mRNAS encoding myelin basic protein and myelin-associated glycoprotein in cerebellum,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 909–916, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. P. Leussis and S. L. Andersen, “Is adolescence a sensitive period for depression? Behavioral and neuroanatomical findings from a social stress model,” Synapse, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 22–30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Sundstrom and B. Karlsson, “Myelin basic protein in brains of rats with low dose lead encephalopathy,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 341–345, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Advokat, “Update on amphetamine neurotoxicity and its relevance to the treatment of ADHD,” Journal of Attention Disorders, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 8–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. J. Heal, S. C. Cheetham, and S. L. Smith, “The neuropharmacology of ADHD drugs in vivo: insights on efficacy and safety,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 57, no. 7-8, pp. 608–618, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. M. Benes, “Myelination of cortical-hippocampal relays during late adolescence,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 585–593, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. R. Huttenlocher, “Morphometric study of human cerebral cortex development,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 517–527, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Maurice, M. Hiramatsu, J. Itoh, T. Kameyama, T. Hasegawa, and T. Nabeshima, “Behavioral evidence for a modulating role of σ ligands in memory processes: I. Attenuation of dizocilpine (MK-801)-induced amnesia,” Brain Research, vol. 647, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Dellu, A. Contarino, H. Simon, G. F. Koob, and L. H. Gold, “Genetic differences in response to novelty and spatial memory using a two-trial recognition task in mice,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 31–48, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Bagheri, M. T. Joghataei, S. Mohseni, and M. Roghani, “Genistein ameliorates learning and memory deficits in amyloid b(1–40) rat model of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 270–276, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. R. G. Bellot, M. A. B. F. Vital, J. Palermo-Neto, and R. Frussa-Filho, “Repeated monosialoganglioside administration attenuates behavioral sensitization to amphetamine,” Brain Research, vol. 747, no. 1, pp. 169–172, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Mandillo, A. Rinaldi, A. Oliverio, and A. Mele, “Repeated administration of phencyclidine, amphetamine and MK-801 selectively impairs spatial learning in mice: a possible model of psychotomimetic drug-induced cognitive deficits,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 533–544, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. N. Alvarez, D. F. Fukushiro, J. A. O. Tatsu et al., “Amphetamine-induced rapid-onset sensitization: role of novelty, conditioning and behavioral parameters,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 500–507, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. C. Chinen, R. R. Faria, and R. Frussa-Filho, “Characterization of the rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in mice: role of drug-environment conditioning,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 151–159, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. F. Fukushiro, M. B. Calzavara, T. F. Trombin et al., “Effects of environmental enrichment and paradoxical sleep deprivation on open-field behavior of amphetamine-treated mice,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 773–779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. L. Scholl, N. Feng, M. J. Watt, K. J. Renner, and G. L. Forster, “Individual differences in amphetamine sensitization, behavior and central monoamines,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 493–504, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. F. Connor and R. J. Steingard, “New formulations of stimulants for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: therapeutic potential,” CNS Drugs, vol. 18, no. 14, pp. 1011–1030, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. E. Wilens, “Drug therapy for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Drugs, vol. 63, no. 22, pp. 2395–2411, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. E. Wilens, S. V. Faraone, and J. Biederman, “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 5, pp. 619–623, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. C. F. Fone and D. J. Nutt, “Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. J. Ryan, M. E. Martone, J. C. Linder, and P. M. Groves, “Continuous amphetamine administration induces tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive patches in the adult rat neostriatum,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 133–137, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. J. Nagel, K. L. Medina, J. Yoshii, A. D. Schweinsburg, I. Moadab, and S. F. Tapert, “Age-related changes in prefrontal white matter volume across adolescence,” NeuroReport, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 1427–1431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Barnea-Goraly, V. Menon, M. Eckert et al., “White matter development during childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1848–1854, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Bonekamp, L. M. Nagae, M. Degaonkar et al., “Diffusion tensor imaging in children and adolescents: reproducibility, hemispheric, and age-related differences,” NeuroImage, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 733–742, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. Mukherjee, J. H. Miller, J. S. Shimony et al., “Normal brain maturation during childhood: developmental trends characterized with diffusion-tensor MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 349–358, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. V. J. Schmithorst, M. Wilke, B. J. Dardzinski, and S. K. Holland, “Correlation of white matter diffusivity and anisotropy with age during childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional diffusion-tensor MR imaging study,” Radiology, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 212–218, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Lebel, L. Walker, A. Leemans, L. Phillips, and C. Beaulieu, “Microstructural maturation of the human brain from childhood to adulthood,” NeuroImage, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 1044–1055, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. R. Stefani and B. Moghaddam, “Effects of repeated treatment with amphetamine or phencyclidine on working memory in the rat,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 134, no. 1-2, pp. 267–274, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. M. Gold and P. D. Harvey, “Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 295–312, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. Xu, H. J. Yang, and G. Rose, “Working memory deficits in schizophrenia: neurobiological correlates and treatment,” in Working Memory: Capacity, Developments and Improvement Techniques, E. S. Levin, Ed., Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  50. C. Berridge and T. A. Stalnaker, “Relationship between low-dose amphetamine-induced arousal and extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine levels within prefrontal cortex,” Synapse, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 140–149, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. W. K. Schiffer, N. D. Volkow, J. S. Fowler, D. L. Alexoff, J. Logan, and S. L. Dewey, “Therapeutic doses of amphetamine or methylphenidate differentially increase synaptic and extracellular dopamine,” Synapse, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 243–251, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. Xu, H. J. Yang, Y. Zhang, R. Clough, R. Browning, and X. M. Li, “Behavioral and neurobiological changes in C57BL/6 mice exposed to cuprizone,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 418–429, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. Xu, H. J. Yang, B. McConomy, R. Browning, and X. M. Li, “Behavioral and neurobiological changes in C57BL/6 mouse exposed to cuprizone: effects of antipsychotics,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 4, no. 8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. D. G. Graham, S. M. Tiffany, W. R. Bell Jr, and W. F. Gutknecht, “Autoxidation versus covalent binding of quinones as the mechanism of toxicity of dopamine, 6-hydroxydopamine, and related compounds toward C1300 neuroblastoma cells in vitro,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 644–653, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. K. Matsushima and P. Morell, “The neurotoxicant, cuprizone, as a model to study demyelination and remyelination in the central nervous system,” Brain Pathology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 107–116, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. H. J. Yang, H. Wang, Y. Zhang et al., “Region-specific susceptibilities to cuprizone-induced lesions in the mouse forebrain: implications for the pathophysiology of schizophrenia,” Brain Research, vol. 1270, pp. 121–130, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus