Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 540273, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/540273
Review Article

The Role of Oestrogen and Other Hormones in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Schizophrenia

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia

Received 10 November 2011; Accepted 7 December 2011

Academic Editor: Judith Usall

Copyright © 2012 Emily Hayes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Kraepelin, Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia. Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch fur Studierende und Artze, J. A. Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 4th edition, 1893.
  2. A. Riecher-Rossler and J. Kulkarni, “Estrogens and gonadal function in schizophrenia and related psychoses,” Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol. 8, pp. 155–171, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Riecher-Rossler and H. Hafner, “Schizophrenia and oestrogens—is there an association?” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 242, no. 6, pp. 323–328, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Kulkarni, “Women and schizophrenia: a review,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 46–56, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. V. Seeman, “Psychopathology in women and men: focus on female hormones,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 154, no. 12, pp. 1641–1647, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Hafner, “Gender differences in schizophrenia,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 28, supplement 2, pp. 17–54, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Hafner, K. Maurer, W. Loffler et al., “The epidemiology of early schizophrenia. Influence of age and gender on onset and early course,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 23, pp. 29–38, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. McGrath, S. Saha, D. Chant, and J. Welham, “Schizophrenia: a concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 67–76, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Markham, “Sex steroids and schizophrenia,” Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. In press.
  10. K. M. Abel, R. Drake, and J. M. Goldstein, “Sex differences in schizophrenia,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 417–428, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. V. A. Morgan, D. J. Castle, and A. V. Jablensky, “Do women express and experience psychosis differently from men? Epidemiological evidence from the Australian national study of low prevalence (Psychotic) disorders,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. S. M. Cotton, M. Lambert, B. G. Schimmelmann et al., “Gender differences in premorbid, entry, treatment, and outcome characteristics in a treated epidemiological sample of 661 patients with first episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 114, no. 1–3, pp. 17–24, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. A. Riecher-Rossler, “Oestrogen effects in schizophrenia and their potential therapeutic implications—review,” Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 111–118, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. P. Boyce and E. Barriball, “Puerperal psychosis,” Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 45–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. G. Krafft-Ebing, “Untersuchungen über Irresein zur Zeit der Menstruation: ein klinischer Beitrag zur Lehre vom periodischen Irresein,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 65–107, 1896. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Bergemann, P. Parzer, B. Runnebaum, F. Resch, and C. Mundt, “Estrogen, menstrual cycle phases, and psychopathology in women suffering from schizophrenia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1427–1436, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. L. H. Rubin, C. S. Carter, L. Drogos, H. Pournajafi-Nazarloo, J. A. Sweeney, and P. M. Maki, “Peripheral oxytocin is associated with reduced symptom severity in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 124, no. 1–3, pp. 13–21, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. Y. H. Ko, S. H. Joe, W. Cho et al., “Estrogen, cognitive function and negative symptoms in female schizophrenia,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 169–175, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. S. H. Choi, S. B. Kang, and S. H. Joe, “Changes in premenstrual symptoms in women with schizophrenia: a prospective study,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 822–829, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Mahe and A. Dumaine, “Oestrogen withdrawal associated psychoses,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 323–331, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. Fink, B. E. Sumner, R. Rosie, O. Grace, and J. P. Quinn, “Estrogen control of central neurotransmission: effect on mood, mental state, and memory,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 325–344, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. A. Hughes, F. Liu, K. Marquis et al., “Estrogen receptor neurobiology and its potential for translation into broad spectrum therapeutics for CNS disorders,” Current Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 215–236, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. J. ter Horst, “Estrogen in the limbic system,” Vitamins and hormones, vol. 82, pp. 319–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Cosimo Melcangi and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Sex-specific therapeutic strategies based on neuroactive steroids: in search for innovative tools for neuroprotection,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 2–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. J. Gonzalez-Maeso, R. L. Ang, T. Yuen et al., “Identification of a serotonin/glutamate receptor complex implicated in psychosis,” Nature, vol. 452, no. 7183, pp. 93–97, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. M. G. Sanchez, M. Bourque, M. Morissette, and T. Di Paolo, “Steroids-dopamine interactions in the pathophysiology and treatment of cns disorders,” CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. e43–e71, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. J. Horacek, V. Bubenikova-Valesova, M. Kopecek et al., “Mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotic drugs and the neurobiology of schizophrenia,” CNS Drugs, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 389–409, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. T. Taylor, S. Maloney, J. Dearborn, and J. Weiss, “Hormones in the mentally disturbed brain: steroids and peptides in the development and treatment of psychopathology,” Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 331–360, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. Chavez, M. Hollaus, E. Scarr, G. Pavey, A. Gogos, and M. van den Buuse, “The effect of estrogen on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter levels in the brain: an autoradiography study,” Brain Research, vol. 1321, pp. 51–59, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. S. Lokuge, B. N. Frey, J. A. Foster, C. N. Soares, and M. Steiner, “The rapid effects of estrogen: a mini-review,” Behavioural Pharmacology, vol. 21, no. 5-6, pp. 465–472, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. V. Bubenikova-Valesova, J. Horacek, M. Vrajova, and C. Hoschl, “Models of schizophrenia in humans and animals based on inhibition of nmda receptors,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1014–1023, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. M. Adams, S. E. Fink, W. G. Janssen, R. A. Shah, and J. H. Morrison, “Estrogen modulates synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit distribution in the aged hippocampus,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 474, no. 3, pp. 419–426, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. A. Gogos, P. Kwek, C. Chavez, and M. van den Buuse, “Estrogen treatment blocks 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralinand apomorphine-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition: involvement of dopamine D1 or D2 or serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, or 5-HT7 receptors,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 333, no. 1, pp. 218–227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. A. Gogos, P. Kwek, and M. van den Buuse, “The role of estrogen and testosterone in female rats in behavioral models of relevance to schizophrenia,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 213–224, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Arad and I. Weiner, “Contrasting effects of increased and decreased dopamine transmission on latent inhibition in ovariectomized rats and their modulation by 17β-estradiol: an animal model of menopausal psychosis?” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 35, pp. 1570–1582, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. M. Arad and I. Weiner, “Sex-dependent antipsychotic capacity of 17β-estradiol in the latent inhibition model: a typical antipsychotic drug in both sexes, atypical antipsychotic drug in males,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2179–2192, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. S. Iritani, “Neuropathology of schizophrenia: a mini review,” Neuropathology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 604–608, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. M. E. Shenton, C. C. Dickey, M. Frumin, and R. W. McCarley, “A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 49, no. 1-2, pp. 1–52, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Fornito, M. Yucel, and C. Pantelis, “Reconciling neuroimaging and neuropathological findings in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 312–319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. N. C. Andreasen and R. Pierson, “The role of the cerebellum in schizophrenia,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. L. A. Flashman and M. F. Green, “Review of cognition and brain structure in schizophrenia: profiles, longitudinal course, and effects of treatment,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. M. A. Arevalo, M. Santos-Galindo, N. Lagunas, I. Azcoitia, and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Selective estrogen receptor modulators as brain therapeutic agents,” Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. R1–R9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. M. A. Arevalo, M. Santos-Galindo, M. J. Bellini, I. Azcoitia, and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Actions of estrogens on glial cells: implications for neuroprotection,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1800, no. 10, pp. 1106–1112, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. D. N. Bryant and D. M. Dorsa, “Roles of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in sexually dimorphic neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity,” Neuroscience, vol. 170, no. 4, pp. 1261–1269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. C. Behl, “Estrogen can protect neurons: modes of action,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 83, no. 1–5, pp. 195–197, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. L. Rao and H. Kolsch, “Effects of estrogen on brain development and neuroprotection—implications for negative symptoms in schizophrenia,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 28, supplement 2, pp. 83–96, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. C. Yang, Q. G. Zhang, C. F. Zhou et al., “Extranuclear estrogen receptors mediate the neuroprotective effects of estrogen in the rat hippocampus,” Plos One, vol. 5, no. 5, Article ID e9851, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. J. Li, M. Siegel, M. Yuan et al., “Estrogen enhances neurogenesis and behavioral recovery after stroke,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 413–425, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. M. Liu, M. H. Kelley, P. S. Herson, and P. D. Hurn, “Neuroprotection of sex steroids,” Minerva Endocrinologica, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 127–143, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. M. Garcia-Segura, I. Azcoitia, and L. L. DonCarlos, “Neuroprotection by estradiol,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 29–60, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. W. Simpkins, K. D. Yi, S. H. Yang, and J. A. Dykens, “Mitochondrial mechanisms of estrogen neuroprotection,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1800, no. 10, pp. 1113–1120, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. G. T. Rezin, G. Amboni, A. I. Zugno, J. Quevedo, and E. L. Streck, “Mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1021–1029, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. E. Kretschmer, Körperbau und Charakter. Untersuchungen zum Konstitutionsproblem und zur Lehre von den Temperamenten, Berlin, Germany, 1921.
  54. Y. Kaneda and T. Ohmori, “Relation between estradiol and negative symptoms in men with schizophrenia,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 239–242, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  55. T. J. Huber, C. Tettenborn, E. Leifke, and H. M. Emrich, “Sex hormones in psychotic men,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 111–114, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. G. A. Maguire, “Prolactin elevation with antipsychotic medications: mechanisms of action and clinical consequences,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 63, supplement 4, pp. 56–62, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. Rivier and S. Rivest, “Effect of stress on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: peripheral and central mechanisms,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 523–532, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. T. J. Huber, J. Rollnik, J. Wilhelms, A. Von Zur Mühlen, H. M. Emrich, and U. Schneider, “Estradiol levels in psychotic disorders,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. A. Riecher-Rossler, H. Hafner, A. Dutsch-Strobel, and M. Stumbaum, “Gonadal function and its influence on psychopathology,” Archives of Women's Mental Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Riecher-Rossler, H. Hafner, M. Stumbaum, K. Maurer, and R. Schmidt, “Can estradiol modulate schizophrenic symptomatology?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 203–214, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. N. Maric, V. Popovic, M. Jasovic-Gasic, N. Pilipovic, and J. Van Os, “Cumulative exposure to estrogen and psychosis: a peak bone mass, case-control study in first-episode psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 73, no. 2-3, pp. 351–355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. N. Bergemann, C. Mundt, P. Parzer et al., “Plasma concentrations of estradiol in women suffering from schizophrenia treated with conventional versus atypical antipsychotics,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 73, no. 2-3, pp. 357–366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. C. M. Canuso, J. M. Goldstein, J. Wojcik et al., “Antipsychotic medication, prolactin elevation, and ovarian function in women with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. W. L. Chua, S. A. de Izquierdo, J. Kulkarni, and A. Mortimer, “Estrogen for schizophrenia,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD004719, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. M. Mortimer, “Relationship between estrogen and schizophrenia,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. J. Kulkarni, A. de Castella, P. B. Fitzgerald et al., “Estrogen in severe mental illness: a potential new treatment approach,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 955–960, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. S. Akhondzadeh, A. A. Nejatisafa, H. Amini et al., “Adjunctive estrogen treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1007–1012, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. J. Kulkarni, A. de Castella, B. Headey et al., “Estrogens and men with schizophrenia: is there a case for adjunctive therapy?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 125, no. 2-3, pp. 278–283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  69. J. Kulkarni, C. Gurvich, S. J. Lee et al., “Piloting the effective therapeutic dose of adjunctive selective estrogen receptor modulator treatment in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1142–1147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. J. Usall, E. Huerta-Ramos, R. Iniesta et al., “Raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment for postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1552–1557, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  71. K. P. Good, L. C. Kopala, J. S. Martzke et al., “Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: preliminary findings,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 131, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  72. N. Bergemann, P. Parzer, S. Jaggy, B. Auler, C. Mundt, and S. Maier-Braunleder, “Estrogen and comprehension of metaphoric speech in women suffering from schizophrenia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1172–1181, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. Y. H. Ko, S. H. Joe, W. Cho et al., “Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cognitive function in women with chronic schizophrenia,” International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 97–104, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. R. Louzã, A. P. Marques, H. Elkis, D. Bassitt, M. Diegoli, and W. F. Gattaz, “Conjugated estrogens as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of acute schizophrenia: a double-blind study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 66, no. 2-3, pp. 97–100, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. N. Bergemann, C. Mundt, P. Parzer et al., “Estrogen as an adjuvant therapy to antipsychotics does not prevent relapse in women suffering from schizophrenia: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 74, no. 2-3, pp. 125–134, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  76. R. C. Melcangi, G. Panzica, and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Neuroactive steroids: focus on human brain,” Neuroscience, vol. 191, pp. 1–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  77. N. Maninger, O. M. Wolkowitz, V. I. Reus, E. S. Epel, and S. H. Mellon, “Neurobiological and neuropsychiatric effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS),” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 65–91, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. M. S. Ritsner, “The clinical and therapeutic potentials of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone in schizophrenia,” Neuroscience, vol. 191, no. 1, pp. 91–100, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  79. C. E. Marx, D. W. Bradford, R. M. Hamer et al., “Pregnenolone as a novel therapeutic candidate in schizophrenia: emerging preclinical and clinical evidence,” Neuroscience, vol. 191, pp. 78–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  80. M. Taherianfard and M. Shariaty, “Evaluation of serum steroid hormones in schizophrenic patients,” Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. M. MacKenzie, J. Odontiadis, J. M. Le Mellédo, T. I. Prior, and G. B. Baker, “The relevance of neuroactive steroids in schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders,” Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 541–574, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  82. R. Rupprecht, M. Koch, A. Montkowski et al., “Assessment of neuroleptic-like properties of progesterone,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. V. Kumari, J. Konstantinou, A. Papadopoulos et al., “Evidence for a role of progesterone in menstrual cycle-related variability in prepulse inhibition in healthy young women,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 929–937, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. D. Feifel, K. MacDonald, A. Nguyen et al., “Adjunctive intranasal oxytocin reduces symptoms in schizophrenia patients,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 678–680, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. H. U. Bryant, “Selective estrogen receptor modulators,” Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 231–241, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. T. Littleton-Kearney, N. L. Ostrowski, D. A. Cox, M. I. Rossberg, and P. D. Hurn, “Selective estrogen receptor modulators: tissue actions and potential for CNS protection,” CNS Drug Reviews, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 309–330, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. L. DonCarlos, I. Azcoitia, and L. M. Garcia-Segura, “Neuroprotective actions of selective estrogen receptor modulators,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 34, supplement 1, pp. S113–S122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. J. Kulkarni, “Special issues in managing long-term mental illness in women,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 183–190, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. A. Hofer, G. Kemmler, U. Eder, M. Edlinger, M. Hummer, and W. W. Fleischhacker, “Quality of life in schizophrenia: the impact of psychopathology, attitude toward medication, and side effects,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 932–939, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus