Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment
Volume 2012, Article ID 825050, 7 pages
Clinical Study

High Order Linguistic Features Such as Ambiguity Processing as Relevant Diagnostic Markers for Schizophrenia

1ZADZ Zurich, Dufourstrasse 161, 8008 Zürich, Switzerland
2Research Group Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, Department of Social and General Psychiatry, Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich, Lenggstraße 31, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
3Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany

Received 14 December 2011; Revised 16 April 2012; Accepted 16 November 2012

Academic Editor: Ruth Condray

Copyright © 2012 Daniel Ketteler et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Due to the deficits of schizophrenic patients regarding the understanding of vague meanings (D. Ketteler and S. Ketteler (2010)) we develop a special test battery called HOLF (high order linguistic function test), which should be able to detect subtle linguistic performance deficits in schizophrenic patients. HOLF was presented to 40 schizophrenic patients and controls, focussing on linguistic features such as ambiguity, synonymy, hypero-/hyponymy, antinomy, and adages. Using the HOLF test battery we found that schizophrenic patients showed significant difficulties in discriminating ambiguities, hypero- and hyponymy, or synonymy compared to healthy controls. Antonyms and adages showed less significant results in comparing both groups. The more difficult a linguistic task was, the more confusion was measured in the schizophrenic group while healthy controls did not show significant problems in processing high order language tasks.