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Stem Cells International
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 579142, 12 pages
Review Article

Phases I–III Clinical Trials Using Adult Stem Cells

Cardiology Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Doctor Esquerdo 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain

Received 22 June 2010; Revised 6 August 2010; Accepted 30 August 2010

Academic Editor: Louis Casteilla

Copyright © 2010 Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


First randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that stem cell therapy can improve cardiac recovery after the acute phase of myocardial ischemia and in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, some trials have shown that conflicting results and uncertainties remain in the case of mechanisms of action and possible ways to improve clinical impact of stem cells in cardiac repair. In this paper we will examine the evidence available, analyze the main phase I and II randomized clinical trials and their limitations, discuss the key points in the design of future trials, and depict new directions of research in this fascinating field.