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Stem Cells International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 236231, 7 pages
Review Article

An Osteoconductive, Osteoinductive, and Osteogenic Tissue-Engineered Product for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery: How Far Are We?

University College London Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, London HA7 4LP, UK

Received 24 June 2011; Accepted 28 August 2011

Academic Editor: Umile Longo

Copyright © 2012 Wasim S. Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The management of large bone defects due to trauma, degenerative disease, congenital deformities, and tumor resection remains a complex issue for the orthopaedic reconstructive surgeons. The requirement is for an ideal bone replacement which is osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic. Autologous bone grafts are still considered the gold standard for reconstruction of bone defects, but donor site morbidity and size limitations are major concern. The use of bioartificial bone tissues may help to overcome these problems. The reconstruction of large volume defects remains a challenge despite the success of reconstruction of small-to-moderate-sized bone defects using engineered bone tissues. The aim of this paper is to understand the principles of tissue engineering of bone and its clinical applications in reconstructive surgery.