Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2012, Article ID 236231, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/236231
Review Article

An Osteoconductive, Osteoinductive, and Osteogenic Tissue-Engineered Product for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery: How Far Are We?

University College London Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, London HA7 4LP, UK

Received 24 June 2011; Accepted 28 August 2011

Academic Editor: Umile Longo

Copyright © 2012 Wasim S. Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Tang, X. Wu, W. Lei et al., “TGF-beta 1-induced migration of bone mesenchymal stem cells couples bone resorption with formation,” Nature Medicine, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 757–765, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. M. C. Kruyt, S. M. van Gaalen, F. C. Oner, A. J. Verbout, J. D. De Bruijn, and W. J. A. Dhert, “Bone tissue engineering and spinal fusion: the potential of hybrid constructs by combining osteoprogenitor cells and scaffolds,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1463–1473, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Artico, L. Ferrante, F. S. Pastore et al., “Bone autografting of the calvaria and craniofacial skeleton: historical background, surgical results in a series of 15 patients, and review of the literature,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 71–79, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. T. Konttinen, D. Zhao, A. Beklen et al., “The microenvironment around total hip replacement prostheses,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 430, pp. 28–38, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. G. Mercuri and A. Giobbie-Hurder, “Long-term outcomes after total alloplastic temporomandibular joint reconstruction following exposure to failed materials,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 1088–1096, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. M. Pou, “Update on new biomaterials and their use in reconstructive surgery,” Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 240–244, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Langer and J. P. Vacanti, “Tissue engineering,” Science, vol. 260, no. 5110, pp. 920–926, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Govender, C. Csimma, H. K. Genant et al., “Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for treatment of open tibial fractures: a prospective, controlled, randomized study of four hundred and fifty patients,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: Series A, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 2123–2134, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Mailhot and J. L. Borke, “An isolation and in vitro culturing method for human intraoral bone cells derived from dental implant preparation sites,” Clinical Oral Implants Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. W. Hutmacher and M. Sittinger, “Periosteal cells in bone tissue engineering,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. S45–S64, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. N. Kimelman, G. Pelled, G. A. Helm, J. Huard, E. M. Schwarz, and D. Gazit, “Review: gene- and stem cell-based therapeutics for bone regeneration and repair,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1135–1150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. D. A. Stewart, D. Guo, J. Luider et al., “Factors predicting engraftment of autologous blood stem cells: CD34+ subsets inferior to the total CD34+ cell dose,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1237–1243, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. A. Partridge and R. O. C. Oreffo, “Gene delivery in bone tissue engineering: progress and prospects using viral and nonviral strategies,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 295–307, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. R. Cancedda, G. Bianchi, A. Derubeis, and R. Quarto, “Cell therapy for bone disease: a review of current status,” Stem Cells, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 610–619, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. D. Porter, J. B. Oldham, S. L. He et al., “Mechanical properties of a biodegradable bone regeneration scaffold,” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 286–288, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Wang, L. Qu, X. Meng, J. Gao, H. Li, and G. Wen, “Preparation and biological properties of PLLA/β-TCP composites reinforced by chitosan fibers,” Biomedical Materials, vol. 3, no. 2, Article ID 025004, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. H. Yu, H. W. Matthew, P. H. Wooley, and S. Y. Yang, “Effect of porosity and pore size on microstructures and mechanical properties of poly-epsilon-caprolactone- hydroxyapatite composites,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B, vol. 86, no. 2, pp. 541–547, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. P. V. Giannoudis, H. Dinopoulos, and E. Tsiridis, “Bone substitutes: an update,” Injury, vol. 36, pp. S20–S27, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Ahlmann, M. Patzakis, N. Roidis, L. Shepherd, and P. Holtom, “Comparison of anterior and posterior iliac crest bone grafts in terms of harvest-site morbidity and functional outcomes,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 716–720, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Li and H. L. Wang, “Common implant-related advanced bone grafting complications: classification, etiology, and management,” Implant Dentistry, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 389–401, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. P. Bianco, M. Riminucci, S. Gronthos, and P. G. Robey, “Bone marrow stromal stem cells: nature, biology, and potential applications,” Stem Cells, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 180–192, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Yang, K. F. Leong, Z. Du, and C. K. Chua, “The design of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering. Part I. Traditional factors,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 679–689, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. K. Itoh, N. Udagawa, T. Katagiri et al., “Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates osteoclast differentiation and survival supported by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand,” Endocrinology, vol. 142, no. 8, pp. 3656–3662, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Kaneko, T. Arakawa, H. Mano et al., “Direct stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and expression of BMP receptors in mature osteoclasts,” Bone, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 479–486, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. I. Caplan, “Adult mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering versus regenerative medicine,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 213, no. 2, pp. 341–347, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. J. R. Mauney, D. L. Kaplan, and V. Volloch, “Matrix-mediated retention of osteogenic differentiation potential by human adult bone marrow stromal cells during ex vivo expansion,” Biomaterials, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 3233–3243, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. J. M. Gimble, A. J. Katz, and B. A. Bunnell, “Adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine,” Circulation Research, vol. 100, no. 9, pp. 1249–1260, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. P. A. Zuk, M. Zhu, H. Mizuno et al., “Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 211–228, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. C. M. Cowan, Y. Y. Shi, O. O. Aalami et al., “Adipose-derived adult stromal cells heal critical-size mouse calvarial defects,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 560–567, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. E. Yoon, S. Dhar, D. E. Chun, N. A. Gharibjanian, and G. R. D. Evans, “In vivo osteogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells/poly lactide-co-glycolic acid constructs for bone regeneration in a rat critical-sized calvarial defect model,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 619–627, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. K. Takahashi and S. Yamanaka, “Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors,” Cell, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 663–676, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. K. Okita, M. Nakagawa, H. Hyenjong, T. Ichisaka, and S. Yamanaka, “Generation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells without viral vectors,” Science, vol. 322, no. 5903, pp. 949–953, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. J. A. Thomson, J. Itskovitz-Eldor, S. S. Shapiro et al., “Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts,” Science, vol. 282, no. 5391, pp. 1145–1147, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. L. M. Hoffman and M. K. Carpenter, “Characterization and culture of human embryonic stem cells,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 699–708, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. J. E. Fleming Jr., C. N. Cornell, and G. F. Muschler, “Bone cells and matrices in orthopedic tissue engineering,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 357–374, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. B. Jupiter, S. Winters, S. Sigman et al., “Repair of five distal radius fractures with an investigational cancellous bone cement: a preliminary report,” Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 110–116, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Kopylov, K. Jonsson, K. G. Thorngren, and P. Aspenberg, “Injectable calcium phosphate in the treatment of distal radial fractures,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 768–771, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Rezwan, Q. Z. Chen, J. J. Blaker, and A. R. Boccaccini, “Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 18, pp. 3413–3431, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. A. G. Mikos, Y. Bao, L. G. Cima, D. E. Ingber, J. P. Vacanti, and R. Langer, “Preparation of poly(glycolic acid) bonded fiber structures for cell attachment and transplantation,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 183–189, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  40. A. G. Mikos, G. Sarakinos, S. M. Leite, J. P. Vacanti, and R. Langer, “Laminated three-dimensional biodegradable foams for use in tissue engineering,” Biomaterials, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 323–330, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. J. Mooney, D. F. Baldwin, N. P. Suh, J. P. Vacanti, and R. Langer, “Novel approach to fabricate porous sponges of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) without the use of organic solvents,” Biomaterials, vol. 17, no. 14, pp. 1417–1422, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. R. Kothapalli, M. T. Shaw, and M. Wei, “Biodegradable HA-PLA 3-D porous scaffolds: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 653–662, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. J. R. Porter, T. T. Ruckh, and K. C. Popat, “Bone tissue engineering: a review in bone biomimetics and drug delivery strategies,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1539–1560, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. E. M. Christenson, K. S. Anseth, J. J. J. P. Van den Beucken et al., “Nanobiomaterial applications in orthopedics,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 11–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. J. Chlopek, A. Morawska-Chochol, G. Bajor et al., “The influence of carbon fibres on the resorption time and mechanical properties of the lactide-glycolide co-polymer,” Journal of Biomaterials Science, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1355–1368, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. D. Kaufman, J. Song, and C. M. Klapperich, “Nanomechanical analysis of bone tissue engineering scaffolds,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 611–623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  47. U. Kneser, D. J. Schaefer, E. Polykandriotis, and R. E. Horch, “Tissue engineering of bone: the reconstructive surgeon's point of view,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 7–19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. T. Schantz, D. W. Hutmacher, C. X. F. Lam et al., “Repair of calvarial defects with customised tissue-engineered bone grafts II. Evaluation of cellular efficiency and efficacy in vivo,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. S127–S139, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. H. Reddi, “Morphogenesis and tissue engineering of bone and cartilage: inductive signals, stem cells, and biomimetic biomaterials,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 351–359, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. R. Dimitriou, Z. Dahabreh, E. Katsoulis, S. J. Matthews, T. Branfoot, and P. V. Giannoudis, “Application of recombinant BMP-7 on persistent upper and lower limb non-unions,” Injury, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. S51–S59, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. N. Y. Yu, A. Schindeler, D. G. Little, and A. J. Ruys, “Biodegradable poly(alpha-hydroxy acid) polymer scaffolds for bone tissue engineering,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part B, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 285–295, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  52. K. Gonda, T. Nakaoka, K. Yoshimura, Y. Otawara-Hamamoto, and K. Harrii, “Heterotopic ossification of degenerating rat skeletal muscle induced by adenovirus-mediated transfer of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1056–1065, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. X. Zhang, C. Xie, A. S. Lin et al., “Periosteal progenitor cell fate in segmental cortical bone graft transplantations: implications for functional tissue engineering,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2124–2137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. D. Olsen, C. Yang, M. Bodo et al., “Recombinant collagen and gelatin for drug delivery,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1547–1567, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. N. Matsushita, H. Terai, T. Okada et al., “A new bone-inducing biodegradable porous beta-tricalcium phosphate,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 450–458, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  56. N. Murakami, N. Saito, H. Horiuchi, T. Okada, K. Nozaki, and K. Takaoka, “Repair of segmental defects in rabbit humeri with titanium fiber mesh cylinders containing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and a synthetic polymer,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 169–174, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. V. I. Sikavitsas, G. N. Bancroft, and A. G. Mikos, “Formation of three-dimensional cell/polymer constructs for bone tissue engineering in a spinner flask and a rotating wall vessel bioreactor,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 136–148, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. G. N. Bancroft, V. I. Sikavitsas, and A. G. Mikos, “Design of a flow perfusion bioreactor system for bone tissue-engineering applications,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 549–554, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. V. I. Sikavitsas, G. N. Bancroft, J. J. Lemoine, M. A. K. Liebschner, M. Dauner, and A. G. Mikos, “Flow perfusion enhances the calcified matrix deposition of marrow stromal cells in biodegradable nonwoven fiber mesh scaffolds,” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. W. Janssen, J. Oostra, A. Van Oorschot, and C. A. Van Blitterswijk, “A perfusion bioreactor system capable of producing clinically relevant volumes of tissue-engineered bone: in vivo bone formation showing proof of concept,” Biomaterials, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 315–323, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. H. L. Holtorf, J. A. Jansen, and A. G. Mikos, “Modulation of cell differentiation in bone tissue engineering constructs cultured in a bioreactor,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 585, pp. 225–241, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Petite, V. Viateau, W. Bensaïd et al., “Tissue-engineered bone regeneration,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 959–963, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  63. R. Schimming and R. Schmelzeisen, “Tissue-engineered bone for maxillary sinus augmentation,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 724–729, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Marcacci, E. Kon, V. Moukhachev et al., “Stem cells associated with macroporous bioceramics for long bone repair: 6-to 7-year outcome of a pilot clinical study,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 947–955, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. M. Chimutengwende-Gordon and W. S. Khan, “Advances in the use of stem cells and tissue engineering applications in bone repair,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  66. S. Gidado, W. S. Khan, and D. R. Marsh, “The effect of changes in oxygen tension during fracture repair on mesenchymal stem cell and bone activities,” Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–10, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  67. E. G. Khaled, M. Saleh, S. Hindocha, M. Griffin, and W. S. Khan, “Tissue engineering for bone production- stem cells, gene therapy and scaffolds,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 288–294, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  68. W. S. Khan, F. Rayanmarakkar, and D. R. Marsh, “Principles of tissue engineering approaches for bone repair in the hand,” in Hand Surgery: Preoperative Expectations, Techniques and Results, R. H. Beckingsworth, Ed., pp. 71–84, Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  69. W. S. Khan and D. Marsh, “Tissue engineering approaches for bone repair: cells, scaffolds, growth factors and gene therapy,” Stem Cell Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  70. A. S. Shekkeris, P. K. Jaiswal, and W. S. Khan, “Clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of fracture non-union and bone defects,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  71. B. A. Tucker, S. S. Karamsadkar, W. S. Khan, and P. Pastides, “The role of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in sports injuries,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  72. M. Kanitkar, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “The use of growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells in orthopaedics,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 268–274, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  73. L. Kennard, H. D. Tailor, G. Thanabalasundaram, and W. S. Khan, “Advances and developments in the use of human mesenchymal stem cells—a few considerations,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 245–249, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  74. W. S. Khan, A. B. Adesida, S. R. Tew, J. G. Andrew, and T. E. Hardingham, “The epitope characterisation and the osteogenic differentiation potential of human fat pad-derived stem cells is maintained with ageing in later life,” Injury, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 150–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. W. S. Khan, A. A. Malik, and T. E. Hardingham, “Stem cell applications and tissue engineering approaches in surgical practice,” Journal of perioperative practice, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 130–135, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. S. Khan and D. R. Marsh, “A literature review on the effects of ageing on mesenchymal stem cells,” Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  77. W. S. Khan, “Foreword: stem cell applications and tissue engineering approaches in sports medicine- from bench to bedside,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  78. P. Mafi, S. Hindocha, R. Mafi, M. Griffin, and W. S. Khan, “Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells applicable for musculoskeletal applications- a systematic review of the literature,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 238–244, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  79. P. Mafi, S. Hindocha, R. Mafi, M. Griffin, and W. S. Khan, “Adult mesenchymal stem cells and cell surface characterization- a systematic review of the literature,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 250–257, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  80. A. Mahapatra and W. S. Khan, “Editorial: tissue engineering in orthopaedics and musculoskeletal sciences,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 234–237, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  81. A. Malik and W. S. Khan, “Editorial: stem cell applications and tissue engineering approaches in orthopaedic surgery and musculoskeletal medicine,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  82. J. S. Mohal, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells and their applicability for musculoskeletal applications,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  83. M. Nannaparaju, E. Oragui, and W. S. Khan, “The role of stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors in musculoskeletal tissue engineering,” in Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Y. Xiao, Ed., Nova Science, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  84. M. Nannaparaju, E. Oragui, and W. S. Khan, “Stem cells, scaffolds and bioreactors in orthopaedic tissue engineering,” Stem Cell Research. In press.
  85. E. Oragui, M. Nannaparaju, and W. S. Khan, “The role of bioreactors in tissue engineering for musculoskeletal applications,” Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 264–267, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  86. G. Thanabalasundaram, N. Arumalla, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “Regulation of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into musculoskeletal cells,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.