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Stem Cells International
Volume 2012, Article ID 291431, 7 pages
Review Article

Stem Cells for Augmenting Tendon Repair

Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 E 70th Street, New York, NY 10021, USA

Received 15 August 2011; Accepted 2 October 2011

Academic Editor: Wasim S. Khan

Copyright © 2012 Lawrence V. Gulotta et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Tendon healing is fraught with complications such as reruptures and adhesion formation due to the formation of scar tissue at the injury site as opposed to the regeneration of native tissue. Stem cells are an attractive option in developing cell-based therapies to improve tendon healing. However, several questions remain to be answered before stem cells can be used clinically. Specifically, the type of stem cell, the amount of cells, and the proper combination of growth factors or mechanical stimuli to induce differentiation all remain to be seen. This paper outlines the current literature on the use of stem cells for tendon augmentation.