Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2012, Article ID 316281, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/316281
Review Article

Tendon Regeneration and Repair with Stem Cells

1University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Middlesex HA7 4LP, UK
3Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham B31 2AP, UK

Received 14 July 2011; Accepted 5 September 2011

Academic Editor: Umile Longo

Copyright © 2012 S. MacLean et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. C. Tai and A. Williams, “Ligaments and tendons,” in Basic Orthopaedic Sciences, Ramachandram, Ed., chapter 8, pp. 71–78, Hodder-Arnold, London, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Hoffmann and G. Gross, “Tendon and ligament engineering in the adult organism: mesenchymal stem cells and gene-therapeutic approaches,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 791–797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. C. J. DeFrances, M. J. Hall, and M. N. Podgornik MN., “2003 summary: national hospital discharge survey,” Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics no. 359, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  4. S. Tempelhof, S. Rupp, and R. Seil, “Age-related prevalence of rotator cuff tears in asymptomatic shoulders,” Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 296–299, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Milgrom, M. Schaffler, S. Gilbert, and M. Van Holsbeeck, “Rotator-cuff changes in asymptomatic adults. The effect of age, hand dominance and gender,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series B, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 296–298, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Miniaci and M. MacLeod, “Transfer of the latissimus dorsi muscle after failed repair of a massive tear of the rotator cuff. A two to five-year review,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series A, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1120–1127, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Bongso and E. H. Lee, “Stem cells: their definition, classification and sources,” in Stem Cells: From Bench to Bedside, A. Bongso and E. H. Lee, Eds., p. 1, World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. I. Caplan, “The mesengenic process,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 429–435, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. S. Kryger, A. K. S. Chong, M. Costa, H. Pham, S. J. Bates, and J. Chang, “A Comparison of tenocytes and mesenchymal stem cells for use in flexor tendon tissue engineering,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 597–605, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. H. Tempfer, A. Wagner, R. Gehwolf et al., “Perivascular cells of the supraspinatus tendon express both tendon- and stem cell-related markers,” Histochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 733–741, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. B. A. Pryce, S. S. Watson, N. D. Murchison, J. A. Staverosky, N. Dünker, and R. Schweitzer, “Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGF-β signaling are essential for tendon formation,” Development, vol. 136, no. 8, pp. 1351–1361, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. A. D. Mazzocca, M. B. R. McCarthy, D. M. Chowaniec, M. P. Cote, R. A. Arciero, and H. Drissi, “Rapid isolation of human stem cells (connective tissue progenitor cells) from the proximal humerus during arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1438–1447, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. H. A. Awad, D. L. Butler, G. P. Boivin et al., “Autologous mesenchymal stem cell-mediated repair of tendon,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 267–277, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Chong, J. Chang, and J. C. Go, “Mesenchymal stem cells and tendon healing,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 14, pp. 4598–4605, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. H. Chang, C. H. Chen, C. Y. Su, H. T. Liu, and C. M. Yu, “Rotator cuff repair with periosteum for enhancing tendon-bone healing: a biomechanical and histological study in rabbits,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1447–1453, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. Y. J. Ju, T. Muneta, H. Yoshimura, H. Koga, and I. Sekiya, “Synovial mesenchymal stem cells accelerate early remodeling of tendon-bone healing,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 332, no. 3, pp. 469–478, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. G. Nourissat, A. Diop, N. Maurel et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell therapy regenerates the native bone-tendon junction after surgical repair in a degenerative rat model,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 8, Article ID e12248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. L. Lacitignola, A. Crovace, G. Rossi, and E. Francioso, “Cell therapy for tendinitis, experimental and clinical report,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. S33–S38, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. L. V. Schnabel, M. E. Lynch, M. C. H. Van der Meulen, A. E. Yeager, M. A. Kornatowski, and A. J. Nixon, “Mesenchymal stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-I gene-enhanced mesenchymal stem cells improve structural aspects of healing in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1392–1398, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. A. E. Watts, A. E. Yeager, O. V. Kopyov, and A. J. Nixon, “Fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells improve healing in a large animal flexor tendonitis model,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 1, article 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. C. G. Turner, J. D. Klein, S. A. Steigman et al., “Preclinical regulatory validation of an engineered diaphragmatic tendon made with amniotic mesenchymal stem cells,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  22. J. Yao, T. Korotkova, J. Riboh, A. Chong, J. Chang, and R. L. Smith, “Bioactive sutures for tendon repair: assessment of a method of delivering pluripotential embryonic cells,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1558–1564, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. J. Yao, T. Korotkova, and R. L. Smith, “Viability and proliferation of pluripotential cells delivered to tendon repair sites using bioactive sutures- an in vitro study,” Journal of Hand Surgery, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. D. J. Guest, M. R. W. Smith, and W. R. Allen, “Equine embryonic stem-like cells and mesenchymal stromal cells have different survival rates and migration patterns following their injection into damaged superficial digital flexor tendon,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 636–642, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. F. Rayanmarakkar, W. S. Khan, and T. E. Hardingham, “Principles of tissue engineering approaches for tendons, skin, nerves and blood vessels in the hand,” in Hand Surgery: Preoperative Expectations, Techniques and Results, R. H. Beckingsworth, Ed., pp. 85–96, Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  26. E. Oragui, N. Sachinis, N. Hope, and W. S. Khan, “Short communication: tendon regeneration and repair, and the role of mesenchymal stem cells,” in Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Y. Xiao, Ed., Nova Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. F. Rayanmarakkar, W. S. Khan, A. Malik, and T. E. Hardingham, “Principles of tissue engineering approaches in plastic surgery: tendons and skin,” Stem Cell Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  28. N. A. Siddiqui, J. M. L. Wong, and W. S. Khan, “Stem cells for tendon and ligament tissue engineering and regeneration,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  29. J. Donaldson and W. S. Khan, “Functional tissue engineering for rotator cuff tendons,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  30. N. Juncosa-Melvin, K. S. Matlin, R. W. Holdcraft, V. S. Nirmalanandhan, and D. L. Butler, “Mechanical stimulation increases collagen type I and collagen type III gene expression of stem cell-collagen sponge constructs for patellar tendon repair,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1219–1226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. A. Y. Zhang and J. Chang, “Tissue engineering of flexor tendons,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 565–572, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. N. Juncosa-Melvin, G. P. Boivin, M. T. Galloway, C. Gooch, J. R. West, and D. L. Butler, “Effects of cell-to-collagen ratio in stem cell-seeded constructs for Achilles tendon repair,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 681–689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. V. S. Nirmalanandhan, M. S. Levy, A. J. Huth, and D. L. Butler, “Effects of cell seeding density and collagen concentration on contraction kinetics of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded collagen constructs,” Tissue Engineering, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1865–1872, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. Z. Yin, X. Chen, J. L. Chen, and H. W. Ouyang, “Stem cells for tendon tissue engineering and regeneration,” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 689–700, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. D. L. Butler, N. Juncosa-Melvin, G. P. Boivin et al., “Functional tissue engineering for tendon repair: a multidisciplinary strategy using mesenchymal stem cells, bioscaffolds, and mechanical stimulation,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. L. V. Gulotta, D. Kovacevic, J. R. Ehteshami, E. Dagher, J. D. Packer, and S. A. Rodeo, “Application of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a rotator cuff repair model,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 2126–2133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. L. V. Gulotta, D. Kovacevic, S. Montgomery, J. R. Ehteshami, J. D. Packer, and S. A. Rodeo, “Stem cells genetically modified with the developmental gene MT1-MMP improve regeneration of the supraspinatus tendon-to-bone insertion site,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1429–1437, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. A. Hoffmann and G. Gross, “Tendon and ligament engineering in the adult organism: mesenchymal stem cells and gene-therapeutic approaches,” International Orthopaedics, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 791–797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. S. Shahab-Osterloh, F. Witte, A. Hoffmann et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell-dependent formation of heterotopic tendon-bone insertions (osteotendinous junctions),” Stem Cells, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1590–1601, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. D. Kovacevic and S. A. Rodeo, “Biological augmentation of rotator cuff tendon repair,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 466, no. 3, pp. 622–633, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. M. T. Harris, D. L. Butler, G. P. Boivin, J. B. Florer, E. J. Schantz, and R. J. Wenstrup, “Mesenchymal stem cells used for rabbit tendon repair can form ectopic bone and express alkaline phosphatase activity in constructs,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 998–1003, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. F. Rayanmarakkar, W. S. Khan, A. Malik, and T. E. Hardingham, “Principles of tissue engineering approaches in plastic surgery: tendons and skin,” Stem Cell Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  43. E. Oragui, N. Sachinis, N. Hope, and W. S. Khan, “The role of mesenchymal stem cells in tendon regeneration and repair,” Stem Cell Research. In press.
  44. M. Al-Rashid and W. S. Khan, “The role of stem cells in ligament repair,” Stem Cell Research. In press.
  45. G. Thanabalasundaram, N. Arumalla, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “Regulation of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into musculoskeletal cells,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  46. J. Donaldson, W. S. Khan, and A. Hazlerigg, “Functional tissue engineering for rotator cuff tendons,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  47. A. Malik and W. S. Khan, “Editorial: stem cell applications and tissue engineering approaches in orthopaedic surgery and musculoskeletal medicine,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  48. N. A. Siddiqui, J. M. L. Wong, W. S. Khan, and A. Hazlerigg, “Stem cells for tendon and ligament tissue engineering and regeneration,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  49. P. Mafi, S. Hindocha, R. Mafi, M. Griffin, and W. S. Khan, “Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells applicable for musculoskeletal applications- a systematic review of the literature,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 238–244, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  50. L. Kennard, H. D. Tailor, G. Thanabalasundaram, and W. S. Khan, “Advances and developments in the use of human mesenchymal stem cells—a few considerations,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 245–249, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  51. E. Oragui, M. Nannaparaju, and W. S. Khan, “The Role of bioreactors in tissue engineering for musculoskeletal applications,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 264–267, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  52. M. Kanitkar, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “The use of growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells in orthopaedics,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 268–274, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. W. S. Khan, “Foreword: stem cell applications and tissue engineering approaches in sports medicine- from bench to bedside,” Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 5, no. 4, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  54. B. A. Tucker, S. S. Karamsadkar, W. S. Khan, and P. Pastides, “The role of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in sports injuries,” Journal of Stem Cells. In press.
  55. J. S. Mohal, H. D. Tailor, and W. S. Khan, “Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells and their applicability for musculoskeletal applications,” Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy. In press.
  56. A. Mahapatra and W. S. Khan, “Editorial: tissue engineering in orthopaedics and musculoskeletal sciences,” The Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol. 5, pp. 234–237, 2011. View at Google Scholar