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Stem Cells International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 232896, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/232896
Research Article

Effects of Severe Hypoxia on Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation Potential

1Rheumatology Division, INIBIC Hospital Universitario A Coruña, C/As Xubias S/N, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
2CIBER-BBN-Cellular Therapy Area, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, C/As Xubias S/N, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
3Catedra Bioiberica-University of A Coruña, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, C/As Xubias S/N, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
4Department of Medicine, INIBIC University of A Coruña, Campus de Oza S/N, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
5Department of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, Spain
6Osteoarticular and Aging Research Laboratory, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, C/As Xubias S/N, 15006 A Coruña, Spain

Received 1 January 2013; Revised 27 June 2013; Accepted 30 June 2013

Academic Editor: B. Bunnell

Copyright © 2013 Claudia Cicione et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The interests in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their application in cell therapy have resulted in a better understanding of the basic biology of these cells. Recently hypoxia has been indicated as crucial for complete chondrogenesis. We aimed at analyzing bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) differentiation capacity under normoxic and severe hypoxic culture conditions. Methods. MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes under normoxic or severe hypoxic conditions. The differentiations were confirmed comparing each treated point with a control point made of cells grown in DMEM and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Results. BM-MSCs from the donors displayed only few phenotypical differences in surface antigens expressions. Analyzing marker genes expression levels of the treated cells compared to their control point for each lineage showed a good differentiation in normoxic conditions and the absence of this differentiation capacity in severe hypoxic cultures. Conclusions. In our experimental conditions, severe hypoxia affects the in vitro differentiation potential of BM-MSCs. Adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations are absent in severe hypoxic conditions. Our work underlines that severe hypoxia slows cell differentiation by means of molecular mechanisms since a decrease in the expression of adipocyte-, osteoblast-, and chondrocyte-specific genes was observed.