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Stem Cells International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 376918, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/376918
Research Article

Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Wharton’s Jelly of the Umbilical Cord and Conditioned Media on Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Using a Myectomy Model

1Departamento de Clínicas Veterinárias, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto (UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, No. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2Centro de Estudos de Ciência Animal (CECA), Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologias Agrárias e Agro-Alimentares (ICETA), Rua D. Manuel II, Apartado 55142, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal
3Faculdade de Motricidade Humana (FMH), Universidade de Lisboa (UL), Estrada da Costa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada—Dafundo, Portugal
4CIPER-FMH: Centro Interdisciplinar de Estudo de Performance Humana, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana (FMH), Universidade de Lisboa (UL), Estrada da Costa, 1499-002 Cruz Quebrada, Dafundo, Portugal
5Departamento de Patologia e de Imunologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto (UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, No. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
6Instituto Português de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
7CDRsp-Centro Para o Desenvolvimento Rápido e Sustentado de Produto, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, Rua de Portugal, Zona Industrial, 2430-028 Marinha Grande, Portugal
8CEMUC, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
9UPVET, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto (UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, No. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal

Received 18 July 2014; Revised 21 August 2014; Accepted 22 August 2014; Published 14 October 2014

Academic Editor: Pranela Rameshwar

Copyright © 2014 T. Pereira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle has good regenerative capacity, but the extent of muscle injury and the developed fibrosis might prevent complete regeneration. The in vivo application of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) of the umbilical cord and the conditioned media (CM) where the HMSCs were cultured and expanded, associated with different vehicles to induce muscle regeneration, was evaluated in a rat myectomy model. Two commercially available vehicles and a spherical hydrogel developed by our research group were used. The treated groups obtained interesting results in terms of muscle regeneration, both in the histological and in the functional assessments. A less evident scar tissue, demonstrated by collagen type I quantification, was present in the muscles treated with HMSCs or their CM. In terms of the histological evaluation performed by ISO 10993-6 scoring, it was observed that HMSCs apparently have a long-term negative effect, since the groups treated with CM presented better scores. CM could be considered an alternative to the in vivo transplantation of these cells, as it can benefit from the local tissue response to secreted molecules with similar results in terms of muscular regeneration. Searching for an optimal vehicle might be the key point in the future of skeletal muscle tissue engineering.