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Stem Cells International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 140170, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/140170
Research Article

Intravenous Administration of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces a Switch from Classical to Atypical Symptoms in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

1Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Los Andes, 750000 Santiago, Chile
2Laboratory of Integrative and Molecular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Los Andes, 750000 Santiago, Chile
3Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Andrés Bello National University, 8370146 Santiago, Chile

Received 13 November 2014; Revised 23 January 2015; Accepted 23 January 2015

Academic Editor: Gary E. Lyons

Copyright © 2015 Mónica Kurte et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Potent immunosuppressive and regenerative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) position them as a novel therapy for autoimmune diseases. This research examines the therapeutic effect of MSCs administration at different disease stages in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Classical and atypical scores of EAE, associated with Th1 and Th17 response, respectively, and also Treg lymphocytes, were evaluated. MSCs administration at the onset (EAE+MSConset) induced an important amelioration of the clinical signs and less lasting effect at the peak of EAE (EAE+MSCpeak). No effect was observed when MSCs were applied after EAE stabilization (EAE+MSClate). Surprisingly, EAE atypical signs were detected in EAE+MSCpeak and EAE+MSClate mice. However, no correlation was found in Th17/Th1 ratio. Interestingly, regardless of time administration, MSCs significantly reduced IL-6 and also T-bet, RORγT, and Foxp3 mRNA levels in brain samples of EAE mice. The downregulation of IL-6 could restore the well-functioning of the blood-brain barrier of EAE mice, correlated with a decreased number of brain infiltrating leukocytes. These results suggest that the inflammatory status is important to be considered for administering MSCs in autoimmune pathologies, leading to a further research to clarify the effect of MSCs for multiple sclerosis.