Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2015, Article ID 860950, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/860950
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Viral Infection

1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand

Received 23 March 2015; Revised 8 July 2015; Accepted 9 July 2015

Academic Editor: Armand Keating

Copyright © 2015 Maytawan Thanunchai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Augello, T. B. Kurth, and C. de Bari, “Mesenchymal stem cells: a perspective from in vitro cultures to in vivo migration and niches,” European Cells and Materials, vol. 20, pp. 121–133, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Chamberlain, J. Fox, B. Ashton, and J. Middleton, “Concise review: mesenchymal stem cells: their phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunological features, and potential for homing,” Stem Cells, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2739–2749, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Crisan, S. Yap, L. Casteilla et al., “A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Dominici, K. Le Blanc, I. Mueller et al., “Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement,” Cytotherapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 315–317, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Uccelli, L. Moretta, and V. Pistoia, “Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 726–736, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F.-J. Lv, R. S. Tuan, K. M. C. Cheung, and V. Y. L. Leung, “Concise review: the surface markers and identity of human mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1408–1419, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Le Blanc, “Mesenchymal stromal cells: tissue repair and immune modulation,” Cytotherapy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 559–561, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Zipori, “Mesenchymal stem cells: harnessing cell plasticity to tissue and organ repair,” Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 211–215, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. X. Wei, X. Yang, Z.-P. Han, F.-F. Qu, L. Shao, and Y.-F. Shi, “Mesenchymal stem cells: a new trend for cell therapy,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 747–754, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Peng, D.-Y. Xie, B.-L. Lin et al., “Autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in liver failure patients caused by hepatitis B: short-term and long-term outcomes,” Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 820–828, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Kharaziha, P. M. Hellström, B. Noorinayer et al., “Improvement of liver function in liver cirrhosis patients after autologous mesenchymal stem cell injection: a phase I-II clinical trial,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1199–1205, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Pak, J.-J. Chang, J. H. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Safety reporting on implantation of autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells with platelet-rich plasma into human articular joints,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 14, article 337, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. Garcia-Olmo, D. Herreros, M. Pascual et al., “Treatment of enterocutaneous fistula in Crohn's Disease with adipose-derived stem cells: a comparison of protocols with and without cell expansion,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Tobita, H. Orbay, and H. Mizuno, “Adipose-derived stem cells: current findings and future perspectives,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 11, no. 57, pp. 160–170, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Aggarwal and M. F. Pittenger, “Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1815–1822, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Corcione, F. Benvenuto, E. Ferretti et al., “Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate B-cell functions,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 367–372, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. X.-X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, B. Liu et al., “Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit differentiation and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 4120–4126, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. I. Rasmusson, M. Uhlin, K. Le Blanc, and V. Levitsky, “Mesenchymal stem cells fail to trigger effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 887–893, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. M. Spaggiari, A. Capobianco, S. Becchetti, M. C. Mingari, and L. Moretta, “Mesenchymal stem cell-natural killer cell interactions: Eevidence that activated NK cells are capable of killing MSCs, whereas MSCs can inhibit IL-2-induced NK-cell proliferation,” Blood, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 1484–1490, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Krampera, L. Cosmi, R. Angeli et al., “Role for interferon-γ in the immunomodulatory activity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 386–398, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Meisel, A. Zibert, M. Laryea, U. Göbel, W. Däubener, and D. Dilloo, “Human bone marrow stromal cells inhibit allogeneic T-cell responses by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated tryptophan degradation,” Blood, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 4619–4621, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. Németh, A. Leelahavanichkul, P. S. T. Yuen et al., “Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E2-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production,” Nature Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. T. Tse, J. D. Pendleton, W. M. Beyer, M. C. Egalka, and E. C. Guinan, “Suppression of allogeneic T-cell proliferation by human marrow stromal cells: implications in transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 389–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Baron and R. Storb, “Mesenchymal stromal cells: a new tool against graft-versus-host disease?” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 822–840, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Dander, G. Lucchini, P. Vinci et al., “Mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease: understanding the in vivo biological effect through patient immune monitoring,” Leukemia, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1681–1684, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. H. Martinho, R. M. C. Romanelli, G. M. Teixeira, A. V. Macedo, J. M. C. Chaia, and V. Nobre, “Infectious complications associated with the use of central venous catheters in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,” The American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 642–644, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. von Bahr, B. Sundberg, L. Lönnies et al., “Long-term complications, immunologic effects, and role of passage for outcome in mesenchymal stromal cell therapy,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 557–564, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. J. Jenkins, D. T. Rowe, and C. R. Rinaldo Jr., “Herpesvirus infections in organ transplant recipients,” Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. A. Fishman, “Overview: cytomegalovirus and the herpesviruses in transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 13, supplement 3, pp. 1–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. V. Smirnov, R. Harbacheuski, A. Lewis-Antes, H. Zhu, P. Rameshwar, and S. V. Kotenko, “Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a target for cytomegalovirus infection: implications for hematopoiesis, self-renewal and differentiation potential,” Virology, vol. 360, no. 1, pp. 6–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Meisel, K. Heseler, J. Nau et al., “Cytomegalovirus infection impairs immunosuppressive and antimicrobial effector functions of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 898630, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. A. Soland, L. R. Keyes, R. Bayne et al., “Perivascular stromal cells as a potential reservoir of human cytomegalovirus,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 820–830, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Avanzi, V. Leoni, A. Rotola et al., “Susceptibility of human placenta derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells to human herpesviruses infection,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e71412, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Sundin, A. Lindblom, C. Örvell et al., “Persistence of human parvovirus B19 in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells expressing the erythrocyte P antigen: implications for transplantation,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1172–1179, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Rollín, R. Álvarez-Lafuente, F. Marco et al., “Human parvovirus B19, varicella zoster virus, and human herpesvirus-6 in mesenchymal stem cells of patients with osteoarthritis: analysis with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 475–478, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. A. Okoye and L. J. Picker, “CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV infection: mechanisms of immunological failure,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 254, no. 1, pp. 54–64, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Allam, S. Samarani, and A. Ahmad, “Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in HIV-infected HAART-treated nonimmune responders restores immune competence,” AIDS, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1349–1352, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Wang, D. Mondal, V. F. La Russa, and K. C. Agrawal, “Suppression of clonogenic potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by HIV type 1: putative role of HIV type 1 Tat protein and inflammatory cytokines,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 917–931, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. J. Cotter, N. Chew, W. G. Powderly, and P. P. Doran, “HIV type 1 alters mesenchymal stem cell differentiation potential and cell phenotype ex vivo,” AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 187–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Gibellini, F. Alviano, A. Miserocchi et al., “HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Retrovirology, vol. 8, article 40, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Cheng, P. Rai, X. Lan et al., “Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 319, no. 14, pp. 2266–2274, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Ma, Q. Xing, L. Shao et al., “Hepatitis B virus infection and replication in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” Virology Journal, vol. 8, p. 486, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  43. Y. Wang, F. Wang, H. Zhao, X. Zhang, H. Chen, and K. Zhang, “Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are resistant to HBV infection during differentiation into hepatocytes in vitro,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 6096–6110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K.-D. Lee, T. K.-C. Kuo, J. Whang-Peng et al., “In vitro hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1275–1284, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H.-L. Hang and Q. Xia, “Role of BMSCs in liver regeneration and metastasis after hepatectomy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 126–132, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. Xie, Y.-B. Zheng, H.-P. Zhu, L. Peng, and Z.-L. Gao, “Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are resistant to HBV infection during differentiation into hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro,” Cell Biology International, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 493–500, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Q. Rong, L. Zhang, E. Su et al., “Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are capable of mediating hepatitis B virus infection in injured tissues,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 607–614, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y.-S. Zhong, N. Lin, M.-H. Deng, F.-C. Zhang, Z.-F. Tang, and R.-Y. Xu, “Deficient proliferation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with chronic hepatitis b viral infections and cirrhosis of the liver,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 438–445, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. Y. P. Lin, M. Shaw, V. Gregory et al., “Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 17, pp. 9654–9658, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Q. Liu, D.-Y. Liu, and Z.-Q. Yang, “Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1257–1269, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. T. Thanh, H. R. van Doorn, and M. D. de Jong, “Human H5N1 influenza: current insight into pathogenesis,” International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 2671–2674, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. D. de Jong, C. P. Simmons, T. T. Thanh et al., “Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia,” Nature Medicine, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1203–1207, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. G. Sharma, D. C. Sharma, L. H. Fen et al., “Reduction of influenza virus-induced lung inflammation and mortality in animals treated with a phosophodisestrase-4 inhibitor and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor,” Emerging Microbes & Infections, vol. 2, no. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. F. G. J. Calkoen, C. Vervat, A. G. S. van Halteren et al., “Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy is associated with increased adenovirus-associated but not cytomegalovirus-associated mortality in children with severe acute graft-versus-host disease,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 899–910, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. Lucchini, E. Dander, F. Pavan et al., “Mesenchymal stromal cells do not increase the risk of viral reactivation nor the severity of viral events in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2012, Article ID 690236, 6 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. H. Karlsson, S. Samarasinghe, L. M. Ball et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells exert differential effects on alloantigen and virus-specific T-cell responses,” Blood, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 532–541, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Sundin, C. Örvell, I. Rasmusson, B. Sundberg, O. Ringdén, and K. Le Blanc, “Mesenchymal stem cells are susceptible to human herpesviruses, but viral DNA cannot be detected in the healthy seropositive individual,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1051–1059, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Malcherek, N. Jin, A. G. Hückelhoven et al., “Mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit proliferation of virus-specific CD8+ T cells,” Leukemia, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2388–2394, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. X. Liu, T. Feng, T. Gong et al., “Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells inhibit the function of allogeneic activated Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes In Vitro,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 317801, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. M. E. J. Reinders, J. W. de Fijter, H. Roelofs et al., “Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of allograft rejection after renal transplantation: results of a phase I study,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107–111, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. O. Blennow, G. Fjaertoft, J. Winiarski, P. Ljungman, J. Mattsson, and M. Remberger, “Varicella-zoster reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation without routine prophylaxis—the incidence remains high,” Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1646–1649, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. Li, Y. Chi, Q. Bian, T. Wen, and W. Zhang, “Mesenchymal stem cells therapy for H9N2 avian influenza viruses induced acute lung injury in mice,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB '12), pp. 1052–1055, IEEE, Macau, China, May 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. I. Darwish, D. Banner, S. Mubareka et al., “Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cell therapy fails to improve outcomes in experimental severe influenza,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, Article ID e71761, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. E. Gotts, J. Abbott, and M. A. Matthay, “Influenza causes prolonged disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier in mice unresponsive to mesenchymal stem cell therapy,” The American Journal of Physiology—Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 307, no. 5, pp. L395–L406, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Thanunchai, P. Kanrai, S. Wiboon-Ut, P. Puthavathana, S. Hongeng, and A. Thitithanyanont, “Tropism of avian influenza a (H5N1) virus to mesenchymal stem cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, Article ID e81805, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Khatri, T. D. O'Brien, S. M. Goyal, and J. M. Sharma, “Isolation and characterization of chicken lung mesenchymal stromal cells and their susceptibility to avian influenza virus,” Developmental & Comparative Immunology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 474–479, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H. S. Kang, M. Habib, J. Chan et al., “A paradoxical role for IFN-γ in the immune properties of mesenchymal stem cells during viral challenge,” Experimental Hematology, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 796–803, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. W. Li, G. Ren, Y. Huang et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells: a double-edged sword in regulating immune responses,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1505–1513, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. M. Ball, M. E. Bernardo, H. Roelofs et al., “Cotransplantation of ex vivo-expanded mesenchymal stem cells accelerates lymphocyte recovery and may reduce the risk of graft failure in haploidentical hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation,” Blood, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 2764–2767, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Fellig, G. Almogy, E. Galun, and M. Ketzinel-Gilad, “A hepatocellular carcinoma cell line producing mature hepatitis B viral particles,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 321, no. 2, pp. 269–274, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. H. Aurich, M. Sgodda, P. Kaltwaßer et al., “Hepatocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue in vitro promotes hepatic integration in vivo,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 570–581, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. E. Cavallin, P. Goldschmidt-Clermont, and E. A. Mesri, “Molecular and cellular mechanisms of KSHV oncogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma associated with HIV/AIDS,” PLoS Pathogens, vol. 10, no. 7, Article ID e1004154, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. T. Jones, F. Ye, R. Bedolla et al., “Direct and efficient cellular transformation of primary rat mesenchymal precursor cells by KSHV,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 1076–1081, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. C. H. Parsons, B. Szomju, and D. H. Kedes, “Susceptibility of human fetal mesencyhmal stem cells to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2736–2738, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. Krasnodembskaya, Y. Song, X. Fang et al., “Antibacterial effect of human mesenchymal stem cells is mediated in part from secretion of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37,” Stem Cells, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2229–2238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Meisel, S. Brockers, K. Heseler et al., “Human but not murine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial effector function mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase,” Leukemia, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 648–654, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus