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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1286315, 11 pages
Research Article

Epidermal Cells Expressing Putative Cell Markers in Nonglabrous Skin Existing in Direct Proximity with the Distal End of the Arrector Pili Muscle

1The University of Melbourne, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Dermatology, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
2Epworth Hospital, Dermatology Research Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia

Received 3 February 2016; Accepted 17 May 2016

Academic Editor: Shinn-Zong Lin

Copyright © 2016 N. Torkamani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inconsistent with the view that epidermal stem cells reside randomly spread along the basal layer of the epidermal rete ridges, we found that epidermal cells expressing stem cell markers in nonglabrous skin exist in direct connection with the distal end of the arrector pili muscle. The epidermal cells that express stem cell markers consist of a subpopulation of basal keratinocytes located in a niche at the lowermost portion of the rete ridges at the distal arrector pili muscle attachment site. Keratinocytes in the epidermal stem cell niche express K15, MCSP, and α6 integrin. α5 integrin marks the distal end of the APM colocalized with basal keratinocytes expressing stem cell markers located in a well-protected and nourished environment at the lowermost point of the epidermis; these cells are hypothesized to participate directly in epidermal renewal and homeostasis and also indirectly in wound healing through communication with the hair follicle bulge epithelial stem cell population through the APM. Our findings, plus a reevaluation of the literature, support the hierarchical model of interfollicular epidermal stem cell units of Fitzpatrick. This new view provides insights into epidermal control and the possible involvement of epidermal stem cells in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis.