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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 1625015, 12 pages
Review Article

Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

Department of Experimental Hematology, Cancer Research Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

Received 28 December 2015; Accepted 27 July 2016

Academic Editor: Zhaohui Ye

Copyright © 2016 Pallavi Sontakke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date.