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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 4798639, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4798639
Review Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Kidney Disease: A Review of Clinical Evidence

1Excellence Centre for Research, Transfer and High Education for the Development of DE NOVO Therapies (DENOTHE), Florence, Italy
2Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
3Nephrology Unit, Meyer Children’s University Hospital, Florence, Italy

Received 11 February 2016; Revised 15 July 2016; Accepted 18 August 2016

Academic Editor: Franca Fagioli

Copyright © 2016 Anna Julie Peired et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells form a population of self-renewing, multipotent cells that can be isolated from several tissues. Multiple preclinical studies have demonstrated that the administration of exogenous MSC could prevent renal injury and could promote renal recovery through a series of complex mechanisms, in particular via immunomodulation of the immune system and release of paracrine factors and microvesicles. Due to their therapeutic potentials, MSC are being evaluated as a possible player in treatment of human kidney disease, and an increasing number of clinical trials to assess the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSC-based therapy in various kidney diseases have been proposed. In the present review, we will summarize the current knowledge on MSC infusion to treat acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and kidney transplantation. The data obtained from these clinical trials will provide further insight into safety, feasibility, and efficacy of MSC-based therapy in renal pathologies and allow the design of consensus protocol for clinical purpose.