Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 7961816, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7961816
Review Article

Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, The College of Optometry, Tianjin 300384, China

Received 11 November 2015; Accepted 29 February 2016

Academic Editor: Yingmei Feng

Copyright © 2016 Fei Li and Shao-zhen Zhao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. S. Dua and A. Azuara-Blanco, “Limbal stem cells of the corneal epithelium,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 415–425, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Pellegrini, P. Rama, F. Mavilio, and M. De Luca, “Epithelial stem cells in corneal regeneration and epidermal gene therapy,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 217–228, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. B. Jonas, R. M. Rank, and W. M. Budde, “Immunologic graft reactions after allogenic penetrating keratoplasty,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 437–443, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Inoue, S. Amano, T. Oshika, and T. Tsuru, “Risk factors for corneal graft failure and rejection in penetrating keratoplasty,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 251–255, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. W. Thompson Jr., M. O. Price, P. J. Bowers, and F. W. Price Jr., “Long-term graft survival after penetrating keratoplasty,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 1396–1402, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. P. Whitcher, M. Srinivasan, and M. P. Upadhyay, “Corneal blindness: a global perspective,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Bianco, P. G. Robey, and P. J. Simmons, “Mesenchymal stem cells: revisiting history, concepts, and assays,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 313–319, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. R. Otto and N. A. Wright, “Mesenchymal stem cells: from experiment to clinic,” Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair, vol. 4, no. 1, article 20, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Uccelli, L. Moretta, and V. Pistoia, “Mesenchymal stem cells in health and disease,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 726–736, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Hu, Y.-Y. Zhang, H.-W. Gu, and H.-J. Guan, “Effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cell proliferation and growth factor expression of limbal epithelial cells in vitro,” Ophthalmic Research, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 82–88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. K. Salem and C. Thiemermann, “Mesenchymal stromal cells: current understanding and clinical status,” STEM CELLS, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 585–596, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. F. Pittenger, A. M. Mackay, S. C. Beck et al., “Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells,” Science, vol. 284, no. 5411, pp. 143–147, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Da Silva Meirelles, P. C. Chagastelles, and N. B. Nardi, “Mesenchymal stem cells reside in virtually all post-natal organs and tissues,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2204–2213, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Crisan, S. Yap, L. Casteilla et al., “A Perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Crisan, S. Yap, L. Casteilla et al., “A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Crisan, C.-W. Chen, M. Corselli, G. Andriolo, L. Lazzari, and B. Péault, “Perivascular multipotent progenitor cells in human organs,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1176, pp. 118–123, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Dominici, K. Le Blanc, I. Mueller et al., “Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The international society for cellular therapy position statement,” Cytotherapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 315–317, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Alviano, V. Fossati, C. Marchionni et al., “Term amniotic membrane is a high throughput source for multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro,” BMC Developmental Biology, vol. 7, article 11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. Cipriani, S. Guiducci, I. Miniati et al., “Impairment of endothelial cell differentiation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells: new insight into the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 1994–2004, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Păunescu, E. Deak, D. Herman et al., “In vitro differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells to epithelial lineage,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 502–508, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Gu, C. Xing, J. Han, M. O. M. Tso, and J. Hong, “Differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into corneal epithelial cells in vivo and ex vivo,” Molecular Vision, vol. 15, pp. 99–107, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. M. Martínez-Conesa, E. Espel, M. Reina, and R. P. Casaroli-Marano, “Characterization of ocular surface epithelial and progenitor cell markers in human adipose stromal cells derived from lipoaspirates,” Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 513–520, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. H. Liu, J. Zhang, C.-Y. Liu, Y. Hayashi, and W. W.-Y. Kao, “Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate and assume corneal keratocyte phenotype,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1114–1124, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. H. Liu, J. Zhang, C.-Y. Liu et al., “Cell therapy of congenital corneal diseases with umbilical mesenchymal stem cells: lumican null mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 5, Article ID e10707, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Nakahara, N. Okumura, E. P. Kay et al., “Corneal endothelial expansion promoted by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived conditioned medium,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 7, Article ID e69009, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. G. Phinney and D. J. Prockop, “Concise review: mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells: the state of transdifferentiation and modes of tissue repair—current views,” STEM CELLS, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2896–2902, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Galipeau, “The mesenchymal stromal cells dilemma-does a negative phase III trial of random donor mesenchymal stromal cells in steroid-resistant graft-versus-host disease represent a death knell or a bump in the road?” Cytotherapy, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 2–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Lei, D. Hui, W. Huang et al., “Heterogeneity of the biological properties and gene expression profiles of murine bone marrow stromal cells,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 2431–2443, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Krampera, L. Cosmi, R. Angeli et al., “Role for interferon-γ in the immunomodulatory activity of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 386–398, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Ren, J. Su, L. Zhang et al., “Species variation in the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunosuppression,” Stem Cells, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1954–1962, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. X. Zhang, C. Jiao, and S. Zhao, “Role of mesenchymal stem cells in immunological rejection of organ transplantation,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 402–409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Aggarwal and M. F. Pittenger, “Human mesenchymal stem cells modulate allogeneic immune cell responses,” Blood, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 1815–1822, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. M. Duffy, T. Ritter, R. Ceredig, and M. D. Griffin, “Mesenchymal stem cell effects on T-cell effector pathways,” Stem Cell Research and Therapy, vol. 2, no. 4, article 34, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. E. Soleymaninejadian, K. Pramanik, and E. Samadian, “Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells: cytokines and factors,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Ê. J. Bassi, D. C. de Almeida, P. M. M. Moraes-Vieira, and N. O. S. Câmara, “Exploring the role of soluble factors associated with immune regulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 329–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. Baratelli, Y. Lin, L. Zhu et al., “Prostaglandin E2 induces FOXP3 gene expression and T regulatory cell function in human CD4+ T cells,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1483–1490, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. English, J. M. Ryan, L. Tobin, M. J. Murphy, F. P. Barry, and B. P. Mahon, “Cell contact, prostaglandin E2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 play non-redundant roles in human mesenchymal stem cell induction of CD4+CD25High forkhead box P3+ regulatory T cells,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 149–160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. F. Casiraghi, N. Perico, and G. Remuzzi, “Mesenchymal stromal cells to promote solid organ transplantation tolerance,” Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. D. Wu, J. A. Nolta, Y.-S. Jin et al., “Migration of mesenchymal stem cells to heart allografts during chronic rejection,” Transplantation, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 679–685, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Itakura, S. Asari, J. Rawson et al., “Mesenchymal stem cells facilitate the induction of mixed hematopoietic chimerism and islet allograft tolerance without GVHD in the rat,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 336–346, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. Ge, J. Jiang, J. Arp, W. Liu, B. Garcia, and H. Wang, “Regulatory T-cell generation and kidney allograft tolerance induced by mesenchymal stem cells associated with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression,” Transplantation, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1312–1320, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. D. Wan, R. Cheng, H. B. Wang, and T. Liu, “Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissues in a rat orthotopic livertransplantation model,” Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Gao, J. E. Dennis, R. F. Muzic, M. Lundberg, and A. I. Caplan, “The dynamic in vivo distribution of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells after infusion,” Cells Tissues Organs, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Y. Wu and R. C. Zhao, “The role of chemokines in mesenchymal stem cell homing to myocardium,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 243–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. H. M. Hatch, D. Zheng, M. L. Jorgensen, and B. E. Petersen, “SDF-1α/CXCR4: a mechanism for hepatic oval cell activation and bone marrow stem cell recruitment to the injured liver of rats,” Cloning and Stem Cells, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 339–351, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. F. Wynn, C. A. Hart, C. Corradi-Perini et al., “A small proportion of mesenchymal stem cells strongly expresses functionally active CXCR4 receptor capable of promoting migration to bone marrow,” Blood, vol. 104, no. 9, pp. 2643–2645, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. E. Chavakis, C. Urbich, and S. Dimmeler, “Homing and engraftment of progenitor cells: a prerequisite for cell therapy,” Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 514–522, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. J. Ye, K. Yao, and J. C. Kim, “Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in a rabbit corneal alkali burn model: engraftment and involvement in wound healing,” Eye, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 482–490, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. W. Roddy, J. Y. Oh, R. H. Lee et al., “Action at a distance: systemically administered adult stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) reduce inflammatory damage to the cornea without engraftment and primarily by secretion of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6,” Stem Cells, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1572–1579, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. H. Park, K. W. Kim, Y. S. Chun, and J. C. Kim, “Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into keratocyte-like cells in keratocyte-conditioned medium,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 101, pp. 16–26, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Cejkova, P. Trosan, C. Cejka et al., “Suppression of alkali-induced oxidative injury in the cornea by mesenchymal stem cells growing on nanofiber scaffolds and transferred onto the damaged corneal surface,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 116, pp. 312–323, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. J. Y. Oh, R. H. Lee, J. M. Yu et al., “Intravenous mesenchymal stem cells prevented rejection of allogeneic corneal transplants by aborting the early inflammatory response,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 2143–2152, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. Z. Jia, C. Jiao, S. Zhao et al., “Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells in a rat corneal allograft rejection model,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 102, pp. 44–49, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. O. Treacy, L. O'Flynn, A. E. Ryan et al., “Mesenchymal stem cell therapy promotes corneal allograft survival in rats by local and systemic immunomodulation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2023–2036, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. J. Lee, A. Y. Ko, J. H. Ko et al., “Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells protect the ocular surface by suppressing inflammation in an experimental dry eye,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 139–146, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Weng, C. He, P. Lai et al., “Mesenchymal stromal cells treatment attenuates dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2347–2354, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Inoue, F. C. Popp, G. E. Koehl et al., “Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells in a rat organ transplant model,” Transplantation, vol. 81, no. 11, pp. 1589–1595, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. E. Y. Lee, Y. Xia, W.-S. Kim et al., “Hypoxia-enhanced wound-healing function of adipose-derived stem cells: increase in stem cell proliferation and up-regulation of VEGF and bFGF,” Wound Repair and Regeneration, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 540–547, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. J. Cashman, V. Gouon-Evans, and K. D. Costa, “Mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac therapy: practical challenges and potential mechanisms,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 254–265, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. M. Abarbanell, Y. Wang, J. L. Herrmann et al., “Toll-like receptor 2 mediates mesenchymal stem cell-associated myocardial recovery and VEGF production following acute ischemia-reperfusion injury,” The American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 298, no. 5, pp. H1529–H1536, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. W. M. Jackson, L. J. Nesti, and R. S. Tuan, “Concise review: clinical translation of wound healing therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. L. Yao, Z.-R. Li, W.-R. Su et al., “Role of mesenchymal stem cells on cornea wound healing induced by acute alkali burn,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 2, Article ID e30842, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. J. Y. Oh, M. K. Kim, M. S. Shin et al., “The anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic role of mesenchymal stem cells in corneal wound healing following chemical injury,” Stem Cells, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1047–1055, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. V. Holan and E. Javorkova, “Mesenchymal stem cells, nanofiber scaffolds and ocular surface reconstruction,” Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 609–619, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Reinshagen, C. Auw-Haedrich, R. V. Sorg et al., “Corneal surface reconstruction using adult mesenchymal stem cells in experimental limbal stem cell deficiency in rabbits,” Acta Ophthalmologica, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 741–748, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Liang, H. Sheha, J. Li, and S. C. G. Tseng, “Limbal stem cell transplantation: new progresses and challenges,” Eye, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1946–1953, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Eslani, A. Baradaran-Rafii, A. Movahedan, and A. R. Djalilian, “The ocular surface chemical burns,” Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 2014, Article ID 196827, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Y. Lan, S. Kodati, H. S. Lee, M. Omoto, Y. Jin, and S. K. Chauhan, “Kinetics and function of mesenchymal stem cells in corneal injury,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 3638–3644, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. Y. Oh, J. H. Ko, M. K. Kim, and W. R. Wee, “Effects of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on cultures of corneal epithelial progenitor cells with ethanol injury,” Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 7628–7635, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. J. Y. Oh, M. K. Kim, M. S. Shin et al., “The anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic role of mesenchymal stem cells in corneal wound healing following chemical injury,” STEM CELLS, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1047–1055, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. Ma, Y. Xu, Z. Xiao et al., “Reconstruction of chemically burned rat corneal surface by bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells,” Stem Cells, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 315–321, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. Zajicova, K. Pokorna, A. Lencova et al., “Treatment of ocular surface injuries by limbal and mesenchymal stem cells growing on nanofiber scaffolds,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1281–1290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. Y. Lee, H. J. Jeong, M. K. Kim, and W. R. Wee, “Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells affect immunologic profiling of interleukin-17-secreting cells in a chemical burn mouse model,” Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 246–256, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. J. Y. Oh, G. W. Roddy, H. Choi et al., “Anti-inflammatory protein TSG-6 reduces inflammatory damage to the cornea following chemical and mechanical injury,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 39, pp. 16875–16880, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. Cunnusamy, P. W. Chen, and J. Y. Niederkorn, “Paradigm shifts in the role of CD4+ T cells in keratoplasty,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 10, no. 54, pp. 452–461, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  76. J. Y. Niederkorn and D. F. Larkin, “Immune privilege of corneal allografts,” Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 162–171, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. E. Chong and M. R. Dana, “Graft failure IV. Immunologic mechanisms of corneal transplant rejection,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 209–222, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. J. Y. Niederkorn, “High-risk corneal allografts and why they lose their immune privilege,” Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 493–497, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Poon, M. Constantinou, E. Lamoureux, and H. R. Taylor, “Topical Cyclosporin A in the treatment of acute graft rejection: a randomized controlled trial,” Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 415–421, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Liu, J. Jiang, H. Xiao et al., “Topical application of FTY720 and cyclosporin A prolong corneal graft survival in mice,” Molecular Vision, vol. 18, pp. 624–633, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. J. Yuan, J. J. Zhai, X. Huang, S. Y. Zhou, and J. Q. Chen, “Ocular safety and pharmacokinetics study of FK506 suspension eye drops after corneal transplantation,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 153–158, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. A. A. Zaki, M. S. Elalfy, D. G. Said, and H. S. Dua, “Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty—triple procedure: a useful clinical application of the pre-Descemet's layer (Dua's layer),” Eye, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 323–326, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. S. M. Pantanelli, A. Herzlich, G. Yeaney, and S. T. Ching, “Recurrence of granular corneal dystrophy type I deposits within host stroma after non-Descemet baring anterior lamellar keratoplasty,” Cornea, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1348–1351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. G. S. L. Peh, R. W. Beuerman, A. Colman, D. T. Tan, and J. S. Mehta, “Human corneal endothelial cell expansion for corneal endothelium transplantation: an overview,” Transplantation, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 811–819, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. F. Casiraghi, N. Azzollini, M. Todeschini et al., “Localization of mesenchymal stromal cells dictates their immune or proinflammatory effects in kidney transplantation,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 2373–2383, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. M. Krampera, “Mesenchymal stromal cell ‘licensing’: a multistep process,” Leukemia, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1408–1414, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. F. Casiraghi, N. Azzollini, P. Cassis et al., “Pretransplant infusion of mesenchymal stem cells prolongs the survival of a semiallogeneic heart transplant through the generation of regulatory T cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 6, pp. 3933–3946, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. J. Y. Oh, M. K. Kim, J. H. Ko, H. J. Lee, J. H. Lee, and W. R. Wee, “Rat allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells did not prolong the survival of corneal xenograft in a pig-to-rat model,” Veterinary Ophthalmology, vol. 12, supplement 1, pp. 35–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. Fuentes-Julián, F. Arnalich-Montiel, L. Jaumandreu et al., “Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell administration does not improve corneal graft survival outcome,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, Article ID e0117945, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. “The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification Subcommittee of the International Dry Eye Workshop (2007),” The Ocular Surface, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 75–92, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. J. L. Gayton, “Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 405–412, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Y. Ogawa and M. Kuwana, “Dry eye as a major complication associated with chronic graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation,” Cornea, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. S19–S27, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. Y. Ogawa, S. Okamoto, M. Wakui et al., “Dry eye after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1125–1130, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. E. Stern, C. S. Schaumburg, and S. C. Pflugfelder, “Dry eye as a mucosal autoimmune disease,” International Reviews of Immunology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 19–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. W. Stevenson, S. K. Chauhan, and R. Dana, “Dry eye disease: an immune-mediated ocular surface disorder,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 90–100, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. Zoukhri, “Mechanisms involved in injury and repair of the murine lacrimal gland: role of programmed cell death and mesenchymal stem cells,” Ocular Surface, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 60–69, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. Zoukhri, R. R. Hodges, D. Byon, and C. L. Kublin, “Role, of proinflammatory cytokines in the impaired lacrimation associated with autoimmune xerophthalmia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 1429–1436, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. E. Beyazyıldız, F. A. Pınarlı, Ö. Beyazyıldız et al., “Efficacy of topical mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of experimental dry eye syndrome model,” Stem Cells International, vol. 2014, Article ID 250230, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  99. J. A. Wood, D.-J. Chung, S. A. Park et al., “Periocular and intra-articular injection of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: an in vivo imaging and migration study,” Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 307–317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. A. J. Villatoro, V. Fernández, S. Claros, G. A. Rico-Llanos, J. Becerra, and J. A. Andrades, “Use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a canine model,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, Article ID 527926, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus