Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8035759, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8035759
Research Article

Role of MSX1 in Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

1Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
2Department of Dental and Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
3Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
4Department of Dental Science for Health Promotion, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan
5Division of Anatomy and Cell Biology of the Hard Tissue, Department of Tissue Regeneration and Reconstruction, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2-5274 Gakkocho-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8514, Japan

Received 22 March 2016; Revised 8 July 2016; Accepted 14 July 2016

Academic Editor: Gary E. Lyons

Copyright © 2016 Noriko Goto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Satokata and R. Maas, “Msx1 deficient mice exhibit cleft palate and abnormalities of craniofacial and tooth development,” Nature Genetics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 348–356, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Maas, Y. P. Chen, M. Bei, I. Woo, and I. Satokata, “The role of Msx genes in mammalian development,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 785, pp. 171–181, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. M. Orestes-Cardoso, J. R. Nefussi, D. Hotton et al., “Postnatal Msx1 expression pattern in craniofacial, axial, and appendicular skeleton of transgenic mice from the first week until the second year,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 221, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Nassif, I. Senussi, F. Meary et al., “Msx1 role in craniofacial bone morphogenesis,” Bone, vol. 66, pp. 96–104, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Mackenzie, G. L. Leeming, A. K. Jowett, M. W. J. Ferguson, and P. T. Sharpe, “The homeobox gene Hox 7.1 has specific regional and temporal expression patterns during early murine craniofacial embryogenesis, especially tooth development in vivo and in vitro,” Development, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 269–285, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Han, Y. Ito, J. Y. Yeo, H. M. Sucov, R. Maas, and Y. Chai, “Cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal proliferation is regulated by Msx1-mediated p19INK4d expression during odontogenesis,” Developmental Biology, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 183–196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Chen, M. Bei, I. Woo, I. Satokata, and R. Maas, “Msx1 controls inductive signaling in mammalian tooth morphogenesis,” Development, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 3035–3044, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Vieux-Rochas, K. Bouhali, S. Mantero et al., “BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 1, Article ID e51700, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Vastardis, N. Karimbux, S. W. Guthua, J. G. Seidman, and C. E. Seidman, “A human MSX1 homeodomain missense mutation causes selective tooth agenesis,” Nature Genetics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 417–421, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Yamaguchi, J. Machida, M. Kamamoto et al., “Characterization of novel MSX1 mutations identified in Japanese patients with nonsyndromic tooth agenesis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 8, article e102944, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Nakatsuka, T. Nozaki, Y. Uemura et al., “5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment induces skeletal myogenic differentiation of mouse dental pulp stem cells,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 350–357, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Ranganathan and V. Lakshminarayanan, “Stem cells of the dental pulp,” Indian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 23, no. 4, article 558, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Iohara, K. Imabayashi, R. Ishizaka et al., “Complete pulp regeneration after pulpectomy by transplantation of CD105+ stem cells with stromal cell-derived factor-1,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 17, no. 15-16, pp. 1911–1920, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Sakai, A. Yamamoto, K. Matsubara et al., “Human dental pulp-derived stem cells promote locomotor recovery after complete transection of the rat spinal cord by multiple neuro-regenerative mechanisms,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 80–90, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Fujii, K. Fujimoto, N. Goto et al., “Characteristic expression of MSX1, MSX2, TBX2 and ENTPD1 in dental pulp cells,” Biomedical Reports, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 566–572, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  16. X. Li, Q. Cui, C. Kao, G.-J. Wang, and G. Balian, “Lovastatin inhibits adipogenic and stimulates osteogenic differentiation by suppressing PPARγ2 and increasing Cbfa1/Runx2 expression in bone marrow mesenchymal cell cultures,” Bone, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 652–659, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Ruan, Q. Zheng, and J. Wang, “Mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 511–519, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Liu, Z. Wu, and H.-C. Sun, “The effect of simvastatin on mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in tooth extraction socket,” International Journal of Oral Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 90–98, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Ayukawa, E. Yasukawa, Y. Moriyama et al., “Local application of statin promotes bone repair through the suppression of osteoclasts and the enhancement of osteoblasts at bone-healing sites in rats,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 336–342, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. R. Pradeep and M. S. Thorat, “Clinical effect of subgingivally delivered simvastatin in the treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 214–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C.-T. Lee, Y.-T. Lee, H.-Y. Ng et al., “Lack of modulatory effect of simvastatin on indoxyl sulfate-induced activation of cultured endothelial cells,” Life Sciences, vol. 90, no. 1-2, pp. 47–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Okamoto, W. Sonoyama, M. Ono et al., “Simvastatin induces the odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro and in vivo,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 367–372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Gronthos, M. Mankani, J. Brahim, P. G. Robey, and S. Shi, “Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 25, pp. 13625–13630, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Karamzadeh, M. B. Eslaminejad, and R. Aflatoonian, “Isolation, characterization and comparative differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells derived from permanent teeth by using two different methods,” Journal of Visualized Experiments, no. 69, Article ID 4372, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. D. Horton, J. L. Goldstein, and M. S. Brown, “SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 109, no. 9, pp. 1125–1131, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X.-Y. Feng, Y.-M. Zhao, W.-J. Wang, and L.-H. Ge, “Msx1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of mouse dental mesenchymal cells in culture,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 412–420, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Blin-Wakkach, F. Lezot, S. Ghoul-Mazgar et al., “Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: in vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 13, pp. 7336–7341, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. E. Coudert, L. Pibouin, B. Vi-Fane et al., “Expression and regulation of the Msx1 natural antisense transcript during development,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 33, no. 16, pp. 5208–5218, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Petit, F. Meary, L. Pibouin et al., “Autoregulatory loop of Msx1 expression involving its antisense transcripts,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 303–310, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S.-L. Cheng, J.-S. Shao, N. Charlton-Kachigian, A. P. Loewy, and D. A. Towler, “MSX2 promotes osteogenesis and suppresses adipogenic differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal progenitors,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 46, pp. 45969–45977, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. F. Ichida, R. Nishimura, K. Hata et al., “Reciprocal roles of Msx2 in regulation of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 32, pp. 34015–34022, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Ishii, A. E. Merrill, Y.-S. Chan et al., “Msx2 and Twist cooperatively control the development of the neural crest-derived skeletogenic mesenchyme of the murine skull vault,” Development, vol. 130, no. 24, pp. 6131–6142, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. S.-L. Cheng, A. Behrmann, J.-S. Shao et al., “Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient mice fed diabetogenic diets,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4326–4337, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. M. Catron, H. Zhang, S. C. Marshall, J. A. Inostroza, J. M. Wilson, and C. Abate, “Transcriptional repression by Msx-1 does not require homeodomain DNA-binding sites,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 861–871, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Lee, R. Habas, and C. Abate-Shen, “Msx1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5677, pp. 1675–1678, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Wang and C. Abate-Shen, “The Msx1 homeoprotein recruits G9a methyltransferase to repressed target genes in myoblast cells,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 5, article e37647, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H. Zhang, G. Hu, H. Wang et al., “Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 2920–2932, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  38. M. Zhao, V. Gupta, L. Raj, M. Roussel, and M. Bei, “A network of transcription factors operates during early tooth morphogenesis,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 33, no. 16, pp. 3099–3112, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Wang, R. M. Kumar, V. J. Biggs et al., “The Msx1 homeoprotein recruits polycomb to the nuclear periphery during development,” Developmental Cell, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 575–588, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Lee, M. J. Schmid, D. B. Marx et al., “The effect of local simvastatin delivery strategies on mandibular bone formation in vivo,” Biomaterials, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1940–1949, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. A. Wassif, P. Zhu, L. Kratz et al., “Biochemical, phenotypic and neurophysiological characterization of a genetic mouse model of RSH/Smith—Lemli—Opitz syndrome,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 555–564, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus