Figure 2: Neural induction, neurulation, and neural patterning overview. (a) Neural induction: neuroectoderm (neural plate) differentiation happens under the influence of the AVE. The mesodermal cells start migrating in all directions and envelop the embryo between the endoderm and the ectoderm. At the distal pole of the embryo the node develops, to further act as the “trunk organiser.” (b) Neurulation: from the neural plate, cells start to proliferate and invaginate in order to form the neural tube and neural crest which derives from the dorsomedial borders of the neural folds. (c) Neural patterning: cells from the neural tube start to differentiate into precursors for forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord according to a rostrocaudal axis. All timelines are given for mouse and human embryonic development.