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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 8414715, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8414715
Research Article

Comparison of Osteogenesis between Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Sheets on Poly--Caprolactone/-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds in Canine Bone Defects

1BK21 PLUS Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, Research Institute for Veterinary Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea
2College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea
3Powder & Ceramics Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508, Republic of Korea

Received 16 May 2016; Revised 1 July 2016; Accepted 5 July 2016

Academic Editor: Marco Tatullo

Copyright © 2016 Yongsun Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC sheets have effective potentials of bone regeneration. Composite polymer/ceramic scaffolds such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/-tricalcium phosphate (-TCP) are widely used to repair large bone defects. The present study investigated the in vitro osteogenic potential of canine adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and Ad-MSC sheets. Composite PCL/-TCP scaffolds seeded with Ad-MSCs or wrapped with osteogenic Ad-MSC sheets (OCS) were also fabricated and their osteogenic potential was assessed following transplantation into critical-sized bone defects in dogs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteogenic Ad-MSCs (O-MSCs) and OCS was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated Ad-MSCs (U-MSCs). The ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA levels were upregulated in O-MSCs and OCS as compared to U-MSCs. In a segmental bone defect, the amount of newly formed bone was greater in PCL/-TCP/OCS and PCL/-TCP/O-MSCs/OCS than in the other groups. The OCS exhibit strong osteogenic capacity, and OCS combined with a PCL/-TCP composite scaffold stimulated new bone formation in a critical-sized bone defect. These results suggest that the PCL/-TCP/OCS composite has potential clinical applications in bone regeneration and can be used as an alternative treatment modality in bone tissue engineering.