Figure 4: Basal expression profiles of TLR and cytokines in hESCs, hPLFs, hESC-Fib, and hESC-MSCs. Basal expression profiles of (a) TLR-2 and TLR-4 and (b, c) IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 among hESCs, hPLFs, hESC-Fib, and hESC-MSCs as analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The relative fold induction is relative to the respective transcript levels of β-actin. The -axis in (c) is broken to enable visualization of the relative expression levels of IL-8 among the different cell types. (d) Basal levels of cytokine production in the culture supernatants (assayed using ELISA) from hPLFs, hESC-Fib, and hESC-MSCs. The production of IL-6 and IL-8 by hESCs was below detection limits. Values represent the means ± SD of three experiments ().