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Stem Cells International
Volume 2016, Article ID 9581350, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9581350
Research Article

Comparison of Immunomodulation Properties of Porcine Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells Derived from the Bone Marrow, Adipose Tissue, and Dermal Skin Tissue

1Department of Theriogenology and Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea
2Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science & RDA, 77 Chuksan-gil, Kwonsun-Gu, Suwon 441-706, Republic of Korea
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea
4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Health Science, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-702, Republic of Korea
5Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 660-701, Republic of Korea

Received 8 April 2015; Revised 4 September 2015; Accepted 6 September 2015

Academic Editor: Dominik Wolf

Copyright © 2016 Sun-A Ock et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) demonstrate immunomodulation capacity that has been implicated in the reduction of graft-versus-host disease. Accordingly, we herein investigated the capacity of MSCs derived from several tissue sources to modulate both proinflammatory (interferon [IFN] γ and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] α) and immunosuppressive cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF] β and interleukin [IL] 10) employing xenogeneic human MSC-mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. Bone marrow-derived MSCs showed higher self-renewal capacity with relatively slow proliferation rate in contrast to adipose-derived MSCs which displayed higher proliferation rate. Except for the lipoprotein gene, there were no marked changes in osteogenesis- and adipogenesis-related genes following in vitro differentiation; however, the histological marker analysis revealed that adipose MSCs could be differentiated into both adipose and bone tissue. TGFβ and IL10 were detected in adipose MSCs and bone marrow MSCs, respectively. However, skin-derived MSCs expressed both IFNγ and IL10, which may render them sensitive to immunomodulation. The xenogeneic human MLR test revealed that MSCs had a partial immunomodulation capacity, as proliferation of activated and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected, but this did not differ among MSC sources. MSCs were not tumorigenic when introduced into immunodeficient mice. We concluded that the characteristics of MSCs are tissue source-dependent and their in vivo application requires more in-depth investigation regarding their precise immunomodulation capacities.