Stem Cells International / 2017 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

An Overview of Lipid Droplets in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells

Figure 2

Schematic overview of the metabolic pathways required for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerols and their lipolysis. Simplified representations of de novo FA synthesis and LD biogenesis are also included. FA-coA and MUFA/PUFA-coA are in general referred to as FA-CoA. AMP: adenosine monophosphate; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; ACATs: acyl-coA:cholesterol acyltransferases; ACS: acyl-coA synthetase; AGPATs: 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases; ATGL: adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase; CEH: cholesteryl ester hydrolase; CEs: cholesteryl esters; CoA: coenzyme A; DAG: diacylglycerol; DGAT: diacylglycerol acyltransferase; DHAP: dihydroxyacetone phosphate; DHAP-OR: dihydroxyacetone phosphate oxidoreductase; DHAPAT: dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; FA: fatty acid; FA-CoA: fatty acyl-coenzyme A; FFA: free fatty acid; sFA: saturated FA; FASN: fatty acid synthase; GLYK: glycerol kinase; GPATs: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases; cGPDH: cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; mGPDH: mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HSL: hormone-sensitive lipase; LDAPs: lipid droplet-associated proteins; LP-CH: lipoprotein involved in transporting cholesterol; MAG: 1-acylglycerols; MGL: monoacylglycerol lipase; MUFA: monounsaturated FA; NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADH: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NADP: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NADPH: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; P: phosphate; PA-P: phosphatidic acid; PAP: phosphatidic acid phosphatase; PUFA: polyunsaturated FA; SCDs: stearoyl-CoA desaturases; TAG: triacylglycerol; TCA: tricarboxylic acid cycle.

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