Stem Cells International / 2017 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

The Holy Grail of Orthopedic Surgery: Mesenchymal Stem Cells—Their Current Uses and Potential Applications

Figure 1

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are broadly applicable to the field of orthopedics. MSCs can be stimulated to differentiate into several cellular lineages with various clinical applications. For example, fibroblasts can be used to regenerate torn or injured tendons, ligaments, menisci, rotator cuff, and intervertebral disc; chondrocytes can be used to regenerate articular cartilage defects and treat osteoarthritis; osteoblasts can facilitate fracture consolidation and treat metabolic bone diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, growth cartilage diseases, spinal fusion, and regeneration of segmental defects of the bone after tumor removal; myoblasts can be used to regenerate torn or injured muscles; and neurons can be used to regenerate peripheral nerves or aid in the repair of traumatic spinal cord injuries.

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