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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017, Article ID 8085462, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8085462
Research Article

Angiogenic Capacity of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Regulated by SDF-1α-CXCR4 Axis

1Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea
2Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea
3Single Cell Network Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea
4Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea
5Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea
6Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea
7Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Kyunghoon Lee; ude.ukks@hkeel and Sun-Ho Lee; moc.liamg@27attobos

Received 16 December 2016; Revised 26 February 2017; Accepted 1 March 2017; Published 15 May 2017

Academic Editor: Dominique Bonnet

Copyright © 2017 Hyun Nam et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Previously, the perivascular characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were reported, which suggested the potential application of DPSCs as perivascular cell source. In this study, we investigated whether DPSCs had angiogenic capacity by coinjection with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vivo; in addition, we determined the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1-α (SDF-1α) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis in the mutual interaction between DPSCs and HUVECs. Primarily isolated DPSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) like characteristics. Moreover, DPSCs expressed perivascular markers such as NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), and CD146. In vivo angiogenic capacity of DPSCs was demonstrated by in vivo Matrigel plug assay. We could observe microvessel-like structures in the coinjection of DPSCs and HUVECs at 7 days postinjection. To block SDF-1α and CXCR4 axis between DPSCs and HUVECs, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was added into Matrigel plug. No significant microvessel-like structures were observed at 7 days postinjection. In conclusion, DPSCs have perivascular characteristics that contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. The findings of this study have potential applications in neovascularization of engineered tissues and vascular diseases.