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Stem Cells International
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 9640108, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9640108
Review Article

Cellular Therapeutics for Heart Failure: Focus on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

1Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
2Division of Cardiology, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA
3Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
4Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
5Section of Cardiology, Southern Arizona Veterans Health Affairs System, Tucson, AZ, USA
6Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Amitabh C. Pandey; gro.htlaehsppircs@hbatima.yednap and Elizabeth Juneman; ude.anozira.chs@namenuje

Received 25 May 2017; Revised 31 July 2017; Accepted 14 August 2017; Published 17 December 2017

Academic Editor: Bojan Vrtovec

Copyright © 2017 Amitabh C. Pandey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Resulting from a various etiologies, the most notable remains ischemia; heart failure (HF) manifests as the common end pathway of many cardiovascular processes and remains among the top causes for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current pharmacologic treatment for HF utilizes pharmacologic agents to control symptoms and slow further deterioration; however, on a cellular level, in a patient with progressive disease, fibrosis and cardiac remodeling can continue leading to end-stage heart failure. Cellular therapeutics have risen as the new hope for an improvement in the treatment of HF. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained popularity given their propensity of promoting endogenous cellular repair of a myriad of disease processes via paracrine signaling through expression of various cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules resulting in activation of signal transduction pathways. While the exact mechanism remains to be completely elucidated, this remains the primary mechanism identified to date. Recently, MSCs have been incorporated as the central focus in clinical trials investigating the role how MSCs can play in the treatment of HF. In this review, we focus on the characteristics of MSCs that give them a distinct edge as cellular therapeutics and present results of clinical trials investigating MSCs in the setting of ischemic HF.