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Stem Cells International
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 4837930, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4837930
Review Article

Placenta and Placental Derivatives in Regenerative Therapies: Experimental Studies, History, and Prospects

1Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
2Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pereyaslavskaya Str. 23, Kharkov 61015, Ukraine

Correspondence should be addressed to Olena Pogozhykh; ed.revonnah-hm@anelo.hkyhzogop

Received 15 September 2017; Accepted 20 November 2017; Published 18 January 2018

Academic Editor: Essam M. Abdelalim

Copyright © 2018 Olena Pogozhykh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Placental structures, capable to persist in a genetically foreign organism, are a natural model of allogeneic engraftment carrying a number of distinctive properties. In this review, the main features of the placenta and its derivatives such as structure, cellular composition, immunological and endocrine aspects, and the ability to invasion and deportation are discussed. These features are considered from a perspective that determines the placental material as a unique source for regenerative cell therapies and a lesson for immunological tolerance. A historical overview of clinical applications of placental extracts, cells, and tissue components is described. Empirically accumulated data are summarized and compared with modern research. Furthermore, we define scopes and outlooks of application of placental cells and tissues in the rapidly progressing field of regenerative medicine.