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Figure 1: Derivation of MSCs from iPSCs. (a) Inducing iMSCs from iPSCs by mimicking embryonic development. During embryonic development, MSCs arise from two major sources: mesoderm and neural crest cells (left). Protocols for the induction include specific signals and morphogens that drives the iPSCs to mesoderm/NCC formation and then generate iMSCs (right). LPM: lateral plate mesoderm. (b) Protocols that induce iMSCs from iPSCs through iNCCs result in a homogeneous mesenchymal cell population without contamination of other cellular phenotypes; therefore, when differentiation is complete, no remnants of undifferentiated cells are found. Frozen stocks can be made to use cells of the same quality in order to evaluate reproducibility.