Stem Cells International / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Stem cells in Osteoporosis: From Biology to New Therapeutic Approaches

Table 1

Stem cell transplantation in the cell-based therapy of osteoporosis.

Origin of stem cellsRoute of administration

Bone marrow, BM-MSCs, and VSELs
Umbilical cord blood, UCB-MSCs
Adipose tissue, ADSCs
Peripheral blood, VSELs
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)
Intravenous injection
Intrabone marrow injection
Injection to bone surface
Intratail venous injection
Intracardiac ventricular injection

MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells; ADSCs: adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; VSELs: very small embryonic-like stem cells.

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