Figure 1: The 3D aNFC hydrogel has low light absorbance within the visible light spectrum and consists of a dense meshwork with heterogeneous pore sizes. (a) The light absorbance spectrum of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 1% aNFC and 1% alginate hydrogel revealed low absorption of aNFC between 240 and 800 nm. (b) Calcofluor white staining and fluorescence microscopy were used to visualise the distribution of the 3D aNFC hydrogel under native conditions. Highly dense and less dense areas of cellulose fibres are evenly distributed throughout the well. Bar: 100 μm. (c) SEM analysis of the structural appearance and organisation of the 3D aNFC hydrogel revealed a dense, mesh-like network of nanofibres. Bar: 5 μm. (d) Analysis of high-magnification SEM images revealed nanoscale fibres ranging from 10 to 70 nm with an average fibre diameter of . (e, f) aNFC hydrogels contain pores of heterogeneous size ranging from ~1 to 100 μm with a median pore size of .